System socialstructure

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Unformatted text preview: thru HMC LMS 16: Mammals and Primate Characteristics Noyau Thisisasocialorganization,nota matingsystemreally Itiscommonlyfoundamong nocturnalprimatesandsocial groupsarebasedprimarilyonan individualfemaleandher offspring Adultmalesandfemalesdonot formpermanentmixed  ­sexgroups nordomalesandfemalestendto travelwitheachother.Agroupis afemaleandheroffspring,and thentheyhaveoccasionalrun  ­ins withthealphamale Individual(alpha)maleshave rangesthatoverlapseveral differentfemaleranges Sperm Competition (MM ­MF groups) Biological Anthropology MM ­MF Groups With Promiscuous Mating Baboons Anothertypeofsocialgrouping amongprimatesisthemultimale ­ multifemalegroup Suchgroupsarecharacterizedby complexintra  ­trooppoliticsand lotsofcompetition Thesegroupstendtobecome relativelylargeinsizewith numerousmalesandfemalesand offspring Agooddealofsexualdimorphism isseeninthesegroupsasmales competeforfemaleswhoarein estrus Sperm Competition Somecompetition betweenmalesisnot physical,insteadit occurswithinthe femalesvaginaltract  chimpanzees bonobos muriqui Bonobomale Fission ­Fusion Groups  Chimpanzees Agrouphasasharedterritory  Allmembersarefriendlytoone another,butkeepnon  ­group membersout. However,theydonottravel together:theyformsmallergroups toforage Thesegroupsjoinandsplit constantly ThesearebasicallyMM  ­MFgroups withpromiscuousmatingwiththe featureofsplittingoffintosmall groups Monogamy vs. Polygamy Monogamyisrareamongmammalsingeneral;only3%ofall animalspeciesaremonogamous Monogamyismorecommonamongprimates:about15%of species About19%ofhumansocietiessampledfordiversityare strictlymonogamous Thedataonhumanpolygyny suggestthatinmostsocieties mostmarriagesaremonogamous eventhoughthemajority ofsocietiespermitpolygyny usuallybecausemenlackresourcesformultiplewivesand/ormultiple households;butformany,whentheydoaccumulateresourcesto maintainmultiplewivesandchildren,theywilltakeonmorewives Polyandry:veryrareamongmammals,humans  Professor L.M. Smolich SDSU Fall 2011 13 Part III: Growth ad Development thru HMC LMS 16: Mammals and Primate Characteristics Biological Anthropology Human Mating Systems Are humans biologically inclined towards monogamous relationships? (i.e. are we designed/built to be monogamous over evolutionary time?) I nother words,howtotellwhoismale andwhoisfemale?  Humansaremoderately dimorphic   Onaveragethehumanmaleis about10%largera...
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