Synthesis of antimatter and its containment eg

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Unformatted text preview: verses, synthesis of antimatter and its containment (e.g. electric and magnetic fields as prison walls) and how we can use antimatter to fight cancer. 1.5.2 Dark Matter Dark matter is not like regular matter and has never been observed, but its identification might be on the verge of success. Current theory states that about 22% of the universe consists of mysterious, dense (about 5 times as dense as regular matter) and invisible dark matter that keeps the universe intact. Without it, there wouldn’t be enough mass in the universe to keep the galaxies from flying apart. In 2006, NASA scientists were able to detect the gravitational pull exerted by dark matter which has been predicted for so long (http://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2006/aug/HQ_06297_CHANDRA_Dark_Matter.html). It is now believed that dark matter provides the “bones” around which all other cosmic structures have taken shape. 1.5.3 Dark Energy Another dark mystery was discovered when scientists found surprisingly faint supernovas that suggested that universe is expanding faster, rather than slowing down because of gravity’s relentless pull as everyone expected. The universe seems to be pushed by some repulsive force, or antigravity, which has been called dark energy. This energy is diffused throughout space and does not give off light. Current theory claims that about 74% of the universe consists of dark energy. More about dark matter and dark energy can be found at National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Imagine the Universe website http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/science.html. As you can see, some of the biggest questions about the universe remain unanswered: we don’t know the true size of the universe and what it contains; we don’t know if other universes exist; we don’t know why the universe favors matter over antimatter, and we still don’t understand how dark energy shapes universe’s fate. These are all important and very exciting questions, especially since just one significant finding cold lead to a whole new framework of physical laws. We’ll have to leave that to the theoretical physicists, and as chemists, we’ll now turn to learning about the elements of our world, which is just as exciting. Section Test Questions 1. What % of the universe consists of matter? 2. What’s the difference between matter, antimatter and dark matter? Answers 1. ~4% 2. Matter is ordinary matter as we know it (has mass and occupies volume). Antimatter has the same mass as matter, but is completely opposite of matter in all other properties; the two destroy each other when they come in contact. There is a miniscule amount of antimatter in the universe. Dark matter is dense and invisible; it 21 Copyright © 2007 by Concise Books Publishing LLC. Visit us at www.concisechem.com to download other free chapters from "The Concise Guide to Chemistry." CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY keeps the universe intact. Even though it’s believed to constitute ~22% of the universe, it has never been observed; only its gravitational pull has been detected. 22 Copyright © 2007 by Concise Books Publishing LLC. Visit us at www.concisechem.com to download other free chapters from "The Concise Guide to Chemistry." CHAPTER...
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This document was uploaded on 09/19/2013.

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