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Unformatted text preview: verses, synthesis of antimatter and its containment (e.g. electric and magnetic fields as
prison walls) and how we can use antimatter to fight cancer. 1.5.2 Dark Matter Dark matter is not like regular matter and has never been observed, but its identification
might be on the verge of success. Current theory states that about 22% of the universe
consists of mysterious, dense (about 5 times as dense as regular matter) and invisible dark
matter that keeps the universe intact. Without it, there wouldn’t be enough mass in the
universe to keep the galaxies from flying apart. In 2006, NASA scientists were able to
detect the gravitational pull exerted by dark matter which has been predicted for so long
It is now believed that dark matter provides the “bones” around which all other cosmic
structures have taken shape. 1.5.3 Dark Energy Another dark mystery was discovered when scientists found surprisingly faint supernovas
that suggested that universe is expanding faster, rather than slowing down because of
gravity’s relentless pull as everyone expected. The universe seems to be pushed by some
repulsive force, or antigravity, which has been called dark energy. This energy is diffused
throughout space and does not give off light. Current theory claims that about 74% of the
universe consists of dark energy. More about dark matter and dark energy can be found at
National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Imagine the Universe website
As you can see, some of the biggest questions about the universe remain unanswered: we
don’t know the true size of the universe and what it contains; we don’t know if other
universes exist; we don’t know why the universe favors matter over antimatter, and we still
don’t understand how dark energy shapes universe’s fate. These are all important and very
exciting questions, especially since just one significant finding cold lead to a whole new
framework of physical laws. We’ll have to leave that to the theoretical physicists, and as
chemists, we’ll now turn to learning about the elements of our world, which is just as
exciting. Section Test
1. What % of the universe consists of matter?
2. What’s the difference between matter, antimatter and dark matter?
2. Matter is ordinary matter as we know it (has mass and occupies volume). Antimatter has the same mass as
matter, but is completely opposite of matter in all other properties; the two destroy each other when they come
in contact. There is a miniscule amount of antimatter in the universe. Dark matter is dense and invisible; it 21 Copyright © 2007 by Concise Books Publishing LLC. Visit us at www.concisechem.com to download other free chapters from "The Concise Guide to Chemistry." CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY keeps the universe intact. Even though it’s believed to constitute ~22% of the universe, it has never been
observed; only its gravitational pull has been detected. 22 Copyright © 2007 by Concise Books Publishing LLC. Visit us at www.concisechem.com to download other free chapters from "The Concise Guide to Chemistry." CHAPTER...
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This document was uploaded on 09/19/2013.
- Fall '13
- The Da Vinci Code