Unformatted text preview: shing LLC. Visit us at www.concisechem.com to download other free chapters from "The Concise Guide to Chemistry." CHAPTER • • 1.3.2 1: INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY Plasmas (ionized gas) are the “fourth” state of matter. Plasmas are formed at high temperatures
when electrons are stripped from neutral atoms to form an ionized gas mixture consisting of ions,
electrons, and neutral atoms. A plasma must have sufficient numbers of charged particles so that
the gas, as a whole, exhibits a collective response to electric and magnetic fields. Plasmas are
common in the universe; for instance, stars are predominantly plasma. Plasma densities and
temperatures vary widely. More info on plasma applications can be found at www.plasmas.org.
Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) state of matter was predicted by Satyendra Bose and Albert
Einsten in 1920, but was not created until 1995 by scientists Cornell and Weiman. This state of
matter is completely opposite of plasma (super hot and super excited atoms); the atoms in BEC are
super-unexcited and super-cold atoms (170 billionth of a degree above absolute zero). Cooling
rubidium atoms to that extreme caused the individual atoms to condense into a "super-atom"
behaving as a single entity. Read more at http://jilawww.colorado.edu/press/bose-ein.html. Physical & Chemical Properties of Matter We have all seen common salt (sodium chloride, NaCl). What does it look like? Well,
depending on the type of salt that you use, for your shaker or grinder, you might picture
the table salt in fine grains, or table salt in the form of larger crystals. In either case, salt is
still salt. Both types will have same physical and chemical properties.
The characteristics of different substances are called properties.
• Propertied relate to type of atoms present and arrangement of those atoms.
Matter has physical and chemical properties, and can undergo physical and chemical
• Physical properties can be observed without changing a substance into another
substance. If we were to compare the densities (mass/volume) of the two types of
common salt (fine grains and larger crystals), we would notice that they are exactly
same (2.17 g/cm3). There are many other physical properties that can be measured
(Table 1.2). Physical changes are changes in matter that do not change the
composition of a substance. For example, freezing of water is a physical change.
Table 1.3: Examples of Physical Properties
Taste & Odord Example/Definition
A nickel weighs about 5 grams
A hot summer day has a temperature of 39°C
Water boils at 100°C
Water freezes at 0°C
Sulfur is yellow
Diamond is an exceptionally hard substance
Salt is crystalline
Water has a high heat capacity
Copper is a good conductor of electricity
Sugar is very soluble in water
Ease with which the a s...
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