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Unformatted text preview: shing LLC. Visit us at www.concisechem.com to download other free chapters from "The Concise Guide to Chemistry." CHAPTER • • 1.3.2 1: INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY Plasmas (ionized gas) are the “fourth” state of matter. Plasmas are formed at high temperatures when electrons are stripped from neutral atoms to form an ionized gas mixture consisting of ions, electrons, and neutral atoms. A plasma must have sufficient numbers of charged particles so that the gas, as a whole, exhibits a collective response to electric and magnetic fields. Plasmas are common in the universe; for instance, stars are predominantly plasma. Plasma densities and temperatures vary widely. More info on plasma applications can be found at www.plasmas.org. Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) state of matter was predicted by Satyendra Bose and Albert Einsten in 1920, but was not created until 1995 by scientists Cornell and Weiman. This state of matter is completely opposite of plasma (super hot and super excited atoms); the atoms in BEC are super-unexcited and super-cold atoms (170 billionth of a degree above absolute zero). Cooling rubidium atoms to that extreme caused the individual atoms to condense into a "super-atom" behaving as a single entity. Read more at http://jilawww.colorado.edu/press/bose-ein.html. Physical & Chemical Properties of Matter We have all seen common salt (sodium chloride, NaCl). What does it look like? Well, depending on the type of salt that you use, for your shaker or grinder, you might picture the table salt in fine grains, or table salt in the form of larger crystals. In either case, salt is still salt. Both types will have same physical and chemical properties. The characteristics of different substances are called properties. • Propertied relate to type of atoms present and arrangement of those atoms. Matter has physical and chemical properties, and can undergo physical and chemical changes. • Physical properties can be observed without changing a substance into another substance. If we were to compare the densities (mass/volume) of the two types of common salt (fine grains and larger crystals), we would notice that they are exactly same (2.17 g/cm3). There are many other physical properties that can be measured (Table 1.2). Physical changes are changes in matter that do not change the composition of a substance. For example, freezing of water is a physical change. Table 1.3: Examples of Physical Properties Physical Property Mass Temperature Boiling Point Freezing Point Colora Hardnessb Structure Heat Capacity Conductivity Solubility Malleability Ductility Density Taste & Odord Example/Definition A nickel weighs about 5 grams A hot summer day has a temperature of 39°C Water boils at 100°C Water freezes at 0°C Sulfur is yellow Diamond is an exceptionally hard substance Salt is crystalline Water has a high heat capacity Copper is a good conductor of electricity Sugar is very soluble in water Ease with which the a s...
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