2.13-2.15afp

2.13-2.15afp - American Foreign Policy February 13, 2007...

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American Foreign Policy  13/02/2007 16:12:00 February 13, 2007 1938: Munich 1944: Bretton Woods 1945: Yalta; War ends; UN convenes 1946: Long Telegram; Iron Curtain; Baruch Plan 1947: Truman Doctrine; National Security Act 1948ish-1953ish: Marshall Plan 1949: NATO formed; USSR goes nuclear; PRC born Lesson of Munich: you need to nip aggression in the bud Chamberlain’s “peace in our time” French consider German regime change in 1933; what if they had ousted Hitler? WWII, continued 1932: Japan takes Manchuria afterwards, expansionist zeal skyrockets; 1933-37 = total domination racial doctrines China: turbulent frontier problem You conquer a territory, but realize it isn’t safe b/c of what’s beyond it
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You go beyond to conquer, but keep realize that ‘what’s beyond’ is unsafe Japan can’t keep Manchuria safe b/c China keeps messing with it o This leads to second Sino-Japanese War United States ‘not amused’ Going back to Open Door notes, the U.S. has espoused view that China is independent Thus, U.S. comes down hard on Japan with economic warfare (boycotts, etc.) FDR and advisers think U.S. needs to intervene in WWII, but needs to get public to go along However, all of his efforts to bait Hitler fail So, he turns attention to Japan and cuts off Japan’s oil supplies Japan needs oil but doesn’t want to go to war with U.S.; faces a choice Must attack A merica, B ritain, C hina or the D utch o Choose all! Japan marches south to take Anglo-Dutch oil fields; also bombs Pearl Harbor In Germany, Hitler takes over army; he’s a terrible general War all around the world Racism a major feature of the war; Japan and Germany preeminent, but we aren’t that great either (Japanese internment) and in fighting we had it in for ‘Yellow Peril’ Fighting in the west much different than in the east In west, it is total war and bad, but in the east it is extremely brutal ‘normal surrender’ in the west; no surrender in the east Probably not coincidence that most ferocious fighters were also most materially disadvantage “Aerial bombing”: now that war is total, idea of knocking out economic infrastructure becomes important
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“dehouse,” or strike workers in effort to cripple economy Nuclear weapons cost $1 billion (nominal, not inflation adjusted) principle-agent problems: delegation (asking someone to do something for you) o in Nagasaki mission, operation isn’t going so well; they were 2 miles away from where they were aiming (claimed ‘break in the clouds’); possible that bombers just didn’t want to return to base with nuclear weapon on jet On reason Germany and Japan don’t surrender as quickly as we’d like is we adopted ‘unconditional surrender’ policy This is stupid b/c no war ends without conditions Unclear that Germany/Japan had to fight as long as they did Counterfactual: we could have negotiated more
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2.13-2.15afp - American Foreign Policy February 13, 2007...

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