4.24-4.26lapol

4.24-4.26lapol - Latin American Politics April 24, 2007...

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Latin American Politics 01/05/2007 07:52:00 April 24, 2007 – Indigenous Movements and Political Parties Distinguish b/w two types of representation 1) descriptive representation o the # who hold office 2) substantive representation o refers to the representation of a groups interest (so, identity of officeholder doesn’t matter) o do politicians represent the interests of the poor? (for example) Descriptive and substantive representation can be linked E.g. in the US, if minority interests are not represented, we may elect more minorities We’re talking about substantive representation more than anything else We’ve seen outsiders gain clout by distinguishing themselves from politicians Peron in Argentina; Fujimori in Peru; Toledo in Peru o Toledo emphasized “shoeshine boy” past, despite his Stanford degree o So, we want to focus on substantive representation To what extent are lower classes represented in Latin America? While NGOs/neighborhood associations provide for needs, they don’t provide the poor with a political voice Declining representation of the poor has been a general trend, with an exception EXCEPTION: indigenous movements Indigenous people moved from thinking about economics to thinking about ethnicity
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Moved from identifying as “peasants” to identifying as “indigenous” Throughout 1950s-60s, rural people were organized as peasants; a huge shift later occurred BIG SHIFT: since 1980s, rural populations were seen as indigenous people Indigenous populations: Guatemala: 40-60% Ecuador: 30-40% Mexico: 13% These countries are more likely to see indigenous movements than countries like Argentina, with an indigenous population of 2% While size of population is important, movements can emerge even with small indigenous population Especially if the population is concentrated in some area Beginning around 1980, many countries saw indigenous movements (including Chile w/ 5% indigenous population) This is an exception to the pessimism of representation Puzzles: 1) why do we see indigenous movements when other types of representation are fading? 2) why do we see rise of representation of indigenous issues/political identify for the first time? 3) why do these movements start more or less at the same time? 4 types of demands of indigenous movements 1) Want self-determination and sovereignty movements have pushed for dramatic increases in political representation and involvement in decision-making in other words, they’re demanding right to participate in politics not just as individuals but as groups with influence over the government
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2) Want cultural rights often seek bilingual education and recognition of their languages 3) Want access to and control over land and natural resources (material demands) 4) Want the demilitarization of state-indigenous relations especially in Andean region where drug trafficking has thrived
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4.24-4.26lapol - Latin American Politics April 24, 2007...

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