Fatty acids by converting methylmalonyl coa

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Unformatted text preview: : _______________ (iii) Formation of glucose from fatty acids Answer: _______________ (iv) Formation of fatty acids from glucose Answer: _______________ (v) Formation of amino acids from nucleotides Answer: _______________ (vi) Formation of cholesterol from glucose Answer: _______________ (B) (3 pts) Pick one of the pathways that you think will occur, list three of the intermediates in correct order starting from initial substrate. Page 7 of 7 Name: _______________________________________ Net ID: ______________________ Question 16. (16 pts) An individual suffering from periodic hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) is found to harbor a mutation in the gene encoding pyruvate carboxylase resulting in increased enzyme activity. The cause of periodic hyperglycemia is increased flux through gluconeogenesis pathway. (Hint: product of pyruvate carboxylase is an intermediate in citric acid cycle.) (A) (4 pts) This individual exhibits hyperglycemia after fasting for 24 hrs when fatty acid oxidation occurs at high rates in liver. Discuss how this could occur. Include in your discussion (1) the identity of a product of β- oxidation that regulates pyruvate carboxylase activity, (2) the effect this product has on the activity of pyruvate carboxylase, and (3) how increased pyruvate carboxylase activity leads to hyperglycemia. (B) (4 pts) This individual also exhibits low ketone body (acetoacetate and β- hydroxybutyrate) concentrations after fasting for 24 hrs when fatty acid oxidation occurs at high rates in liver. Discuss how this could occur. (C) (4 pt) Ironically, this individual is more resistant to hyperglycemia after a meal rich in starch. This was due to high concentrations of citrate in liver mitochondria. Discuss how this could occur. Include in your discussion the role of pyruvate carboxylase in fatty acid synthesis. (D) (4 pt) A drug designed to inhibit pyruvate carboxylase has the unexpected effect of ammonia toxicity. Discuss how this could occur. Page 8 of 8...
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