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Lecture6_Water budget_biomes

Biosphereturnsonoffat0c goal measureglobalsnowcover

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Unformatted text preview: systems. FORCING DATA & FORCING PARAMETERS PARAMETERS Precipitation, Temperature, Precipitation, Radiation, etc. Radiation, Vegetation Types, Soil Vegetation Classes, Elevation, etc. Classes, Results used to initialize of weather and Results climate prediction models and surface water resource applications. resource Assimilation LDAS North American LDAS Global LDAS Land Information System Land Surface Model Root zone soil water content [%] Output Soil Moisture, Evaporation, Energy Fluxes, River Runoff, Snowpack Characteristics, etc. Application DSS 02 February 2005 Goddard Space Flight Center Floods/Drought, Agriculture Management, Water Quality with 58 USDA, Bureau Reclamation, EPA Observing the Global Water Cycle: ► As a 20 year goal, the global water cycle can be measured with sufficient ►temporal and spatial resolution, ►measurement precision, to provide needed understandings of ►natural variability in availability of water, ►short term climatic effects, and ►changes in cycling of water due to long term ► But: climate change. Could this be done operationally? 02 February 2005 Goddard Space Flight Center 59 Observing the Global Water Cycle: Satellites and Data Access Is it reasonable to consider observing Earth’s complete water cycle with >20 satellites? 02 February 2005 Goddard Space Flight Center 60 Observing the Global Water Cycle: Satellites and Data Access Special LEO: • ~10 satellites ~10 • multi-day to weekly sampling weekly • longer wavelength instruments instruments LEO orbits: 8-10 satellites provide: • multi-hour to multi-day scales multi-day • longer wavelength instruments instruments Geostationary Orbits: 6-8 satellites provide: • hourly ↔ diurnal scales • short wavelength instruments short 02 February 2005 Goddard Space Flight Center 61 Ecosystem Ecosystem ► Includes all living organisms in an area and the physical environment (habitat/biome) with which they interact. ► In an ecosystem, a change in one component causes changes to others (Ripple effect) ► An ecosystem is a complex of many variables, all functioning independently yet in concert (assembly line). ► The key to understand the ecosystems is to understand the linkages and interconnections within and between systems. ► An ecosystem can have various scales. ► Nearly all the inputs depend on solar energy. Ecosystem Ecosystem ► Biotic= living­producers, consumers, and decomposers ► Abiotic= nonliving­ gaseous and sedimentary nutrient cycles Ecosystem Elements Ecosystem Elements ► Producers: green plants and other organisms that produce food for themselves and for consumers that eat them. ► Consumers: organism that eat producers, other consumers or both Ecosystem Elements Ecosystem Elements ► Decomposers: small organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, insects, and worms, that digest and recycle dead organisms ► Material/energy needed for production: water, mineral nutrients, gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, and...
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