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Unformatted text preview: rse, relying so heavily upon our beliefs
makes us biased, often so subtly that we
are unaware of these biases, and we can
therefore be led astray by our own beliefdriven expectations. - since unconsciously ﬁlls the gaps
- stereotypes open us to errors because
we process information in a biased way Because perception --> behaviour, our biases
can actually create their own reality!
- how do you interact with someone you
“self-fulfilling prophecies” expect to be warm or cold?
e.g., race & job applicants; gender/race &
essay quality; gender & classical music Biases are often based on our motivations,
which can alter the information we pay
attention to, the information we dredge up
from our memories, and the meaning that
we read into our experiences.
- e.g., most awesome person? biggest jerk?
Teacher expectations and children's IQ (Rosenthal & Jacobson: the Pygmalion effect)
- 1st grades gain in IQ = 27 v.s. 12
- teacher pay more attention to smart kids, get positive feedbacks, feel better about IQ test, less stressed about IQ test
- Rosenthal taking about college don't know it can't be done and achieves it What we can learn from our biases
Humility – we have many biases; we do not see reality
“as it is”; thus, we shouldn’t get too attached to our
judgements & perceptions & should take a multiperspective approach as much as possible
- we should therefore be open to other perspectives, which are the only real way of helping us uncover our blind spots Empowerment – our perceptions of Reality are
constructed, and we have quite a bit of control over
that (and we can gain much more control than we
currently have!!!) - attention is the foundation of consciousness The Primacy of Attention
Because of our limited info processing capabilities,
ATTENTION is critically important. ATTENTION is
what determines the reality we experience, and
the manner in which we experience it.
ATTENTION determines how we are affected by the
circumstances of our lives (e.g., anger,
depression, regret, anxiety, VS. hope, happiness,
appreciation), how well we perform on tasks, and
many other things.
e.g., cell phones & driving; brain surgery; studying &
distractions The Primacy of Attention
And most importantly, ATTENTION is something
that we can learn to control to an extraordinary
What is the secret to happiness?
ATTENTION! ATTENTION! ATTENTION! Attention also affects Quality of
experience. -- affects how well we do things
e.g. brain surgery e.g., wine tasting; listening to music
- e.g. listening to tunes in my apartment
- every participants all closed their eyes and listened to music for 15 mins
- they all observe a girl (at ﬁrst nervous, then relax, and see her transform into songs/melody) E.g., Flow States Mihaly Csikzentmihalyi interviewed people from all walks of life imaginable
to get descriptions of the most awesome moments of
their lives, the times when they felt most fully alive. The result? No matter the domain,...
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This note was uploaded on 09/17/2013 for the course PSY 100H1 taught by Professor Dolderman during the Summer '12 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.
- Summer '12