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Neurotransmitters primarily excitatory state increase

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Unformatted text preview: ly excitatory state, increase circuit to fire - has a lot to do when people are trying to think, motivate, processing info, learning • Glutamate: excitatory: cognitive, seizures, motivation • GABA: inhibitory, seizures, anxiety; e.g., Anti-anxiety meds (benzodiazepines (Valium, Xanax) help GABA bind more - two different effects effectively to post-synaptic receptors - PNS: paralytic agent - CNS: higher cognitive process • Acetylcholine (ACh): PNS vs. CNS: muscle/motor vs. higher cognition (learning, memory), plasticity, Alzheimer’s, etc. - basic arousal function • Epinephrine/Nor-e: fundamental arousal/alertness fcts. - depression • Serotonin: mood, emotion, motivation, impulse control, etc. • Dopamine: reward (+ motor functions., planning & many higher-level interactions with cognitive functions.) • and..... then there’s a huge variety of other peptides, implicated in basically everything... :) -- reward and motor function = pleasure system learning system Dopamine - main function: deal with our pleasure Dopamine activity in the nucleus accumbens is a practically universal PLEASURE mechanism….and the common bond among drugs of enjoyment, experimentation, and abuse The Dopamine System - overuse a neuron circuit = down regulates the response, decreasing the mechanism of the circuit Drugs of abuse commandeer the brain’s natural reward circuitry. Stimulation of this pathway reinforces behavior, ensuring that what you just did you will do again. Nestler & Malenka (2004): - therefore, learning is strongly affected by reward, and the rewarding effects of, for e.g., cocaine are mediated through the same mechanisms which have evolved for highly functional, adaptive reasons, like learning and motivation....kind of ironic, isn’t it? - Dopamine Junkies - Depression, leaned helplessness, addictions (drugs) -> compulsive behaviors -> motivation - VTA releases dopamine into N.A., amygdala, PFC, etc -> activation of motor &attentional systems The Split Brain The two hemispheres of the brain are actually two mini-brains connected by a bundle of fibers, the corpus callosum - brain is a collection of brains - from the late 1900s until the 1960s, debate raged as to whether cutting the corpus callosum would for several decades until the 1960s, it was not help people with epilepsy -cut the corpus callouss to attempt to help peopleuncommon to with epilepsy Being of two minds... Left hemisphere: logic, linear thinking, language - language production Right hemisphere: emotion, spatial processing, music - spatial relationship "The great pleasure and feeling in my right brain is more than my left brain can find the words to tell you." Roger Sperry - left eye, right brain - patient is asked to reach behind the screen and pick up the object - two hemispheres are function independently Split-Brain Experiments • When asked to point to the item that was seen, the left hand (RH) pointed to the image seen by the right hemispher...
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