Unformatted text preview: as Creates nonconscious bias that serves
to facilitate cognitive (conscious)
evaluation of the situation - randomly draw from decks, good deck and bad deck (look at the number)
- good deck: small win small loss eventually, tell you explicitly about the win/lose ratios before they ﬁgure out rationality, the
ﬁgure it out ﬁrst emotionally
- choose the bad deck, they are not sensitive to the negative outcomes Bechara et al. (1997)
Decks A & B OFC is important for
emotional responding Are emotional
responses necessary for
making? Gambling task that
decision making Decks C & D - everyday risks making C&D A&B C&D A&B Bechara et al. (1997) Control Results: Chose advantageously before they realized which strategy
Developed anticipatory SCR even before they figured out the
strategy VMPFC Patient Results: Chose disadvantageous even when they knew correct
Never developed anticipatory SCR (even when they did
realize the choices were risky) Bechara et al. (1997) Study suggested that non-conscious
biases guide behaviour before conscious
knowledge Without biases, overt knowledge is not
sufficient to ensure advantageous
behaviour - center of rationality The Pre-Frontal Cortex (PFC)
- his research on how much people can change their brains Mind and Life Institute: studies on longterm effects of meditation Key outcomes: 1) people can permanently adjust their
neuroanatomy; 2) people can make themselves much
happier and emotionally stable than
previously believed; 3) people can affect even low-level
processes (e.g., startle, primary emotional
responses) - the brain changes continuously. "our brains" connections are reﬁned and retuned with every experience of our lives."
- only recently have we begun to appreciate our brains' incredible 'plasticity' -or, ability to change Neural Plasticity Plasticity is amazing, but the limits are unknown.
Certainly, age is a factor: e.g., v. young children
with severe epilepsy “radical
hemispherectomy” mostly normal functioning!
Current huge questions concern the OUTER LIMITS
to which people can learn to manipulate their own
neural functioning, and the benefits gained.
Practical questions concern how to create a more
- manipulate neural functioning through practices Brain areas can even recruit systems normally
devoted to other tasks.
e.g., cut off a finger that part of the sensory
cortex will start to receive signals from the other
fingers enhanced sensitivity
e.g., if blind the sensory cortex corresponding to
the Braille-reading finger expands; sense of touch
starts to get processed by the visual cortex
In essence, this is how our sensorimotor cortices
evolved in the first place.
- the hand = huge amount of ﬂashback from the brain...
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