The vpfc send the signals causes autonomic arousal

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Unformatted text preview: as Creates nonconscious bias that serves to facilitate cognitive (conscious) evaluation of the situation - randomly draw from decks, good deck and bad deck (look at the number) - good deck: small win small loss eventually, tell you explicitly about the win/lose ratios before they figure out rationality, the figure it out first emotionally - choose the bad deck, they are not sensitive to the negative outcomes Bechara et al. (1997) Decks A & B OFC is important for emotional responding Are emotional responses necessary for appropriate decision making? Gambling task that simulates real-life decision making Decks C & D - everyday risks making C&D A&B C&D A&B Bechara et al. (1997) Control Results: Chose advantageously before they realized which strategy was best Developed anticipatory SCR even before they figured out the strategy VMPFC Patient Results: Chose disadvantageous even when they knew correct strategy Never developed anticipatory SCR (even when they did realize the choices were risky) Bechara et al. (1997) Study suggested that non-conscious biases guide behaviour before conscious knowledge Without biases, overt knowledge is not sufficient to ensure advantageous behaviour - center of rationality The Pre-Frontal Cortex (PFC) Richard Davidson - his research on how much people can change their brains Mind and Life Institute: studies on longterm effects of meditation Key outcomes: 1) people can permanently adjust their neuroanatomy; 2) people can make themselves much happier and emotionally stable than previously believed; 3) people can affect even low-level processes (e.g., startle, primary emotional responses) - the brain changes continuously. "our brains" connections are refined and retuned with every experience of our lives." - only recently have we begun to appreciate our brains' incredible 'plasticity' -or, ability to change Neural Plasticity Plasticity is amazing, but the limits are unknown. Certainly, age is a factor: e.g., v. young children with severe epilepsy “radical hemispherectomy” mostly normal functioning! Current huge questions concern the OUTER LIMITS to which people can learn to manipulate their own neural functioning, and the benefits gained. Practical questions concern how to create a more brain-healthy society. - manipulate neural functioning through practices Brain areas can even recruit systems normally devoted to other tasks. e.g., cut off a finger that part of the sensory cortex will start to receive signals from the other fingers enhanced sensitivity e.g., if blind the sensory cortex corresponding to the Braille-reading finger expands; sense of touch starts to get processed by the visual cortex In essence, this is how our sensorimotor cortices evolved in the first place. - the hand = huge amount of flashback from the brain...
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