Sane in insane places 8 normal people dont have

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Unformatted text preview: 8 "normal" people (don't have psychological disorder) - complained of hearing voices that said empty, hollow, and thud - all admitted to hospital, 7 diagnosed as schizophrenic - how long before they got out? ---> 7-52 days (and 2100 pills later...) - the patient is not responding to normal, polite question in normal way -> because the doctor is not believe they're dealing with normal people - doctors should use multiple criteria for determining a diagnoses (e.g., medical history) Evaluating Psychopathology: 3 Macro-Criteria 1) Deviance: is the person’s behaviour or experience outside of social norms? - people with tattoo, homosexual = not social norms 2) Maladaptive: is it interfering with other, “normal” aspects of life, responsibilities, etc.? - struggling in their life 3) Personal distress: is the person greatly distressed? A Continuum, Not a Dichotomy clearly functional/ normal: clearly dysfunctional/ abnormal: - socially normative - socially deviant - no distress - personal distress - adaptive beh. - maladaptive beh. Psychological Assessment and Diagnosis - assessment begins with observing behavior and manner, discussing present symptoms, personal and family history, health issues, stress - e.g., a women who is stress and have no medical history be consider as an anti-depression patient by the doctor Rates of Psychopathology - psychological disorders are extremely common - ~10% of the population suffers from a disorder each year - estimates of lifetime prevalence = ~20-44+% (there is a wide range of such estimate) Understanding Disorders at Multiple Levels of Analysis - different type of systems = determine a type of person disorders involve a multifaceted system of factors: Neurochemical (e.g., neurotransmitter problems) Physiological (e.g., illness, exhaustion) Cognitive (e.g., explanatory style) - thought Affective (e.g., mood, positive emotions in response to reward) - emotion Behavioural: (e.g., goal striving, interpersonal engagement/withdrawal, hygiene, work) Environmental: (e.g., pollutants, crime, home/ community disorganization) Interpersonal: (e.g., family conflict, social isolation) e.g., eating, drinking, drugs, sex, missing work/school, withdrawal from social events STRUCTURAL FACTORS (e.g., $, job, bills piling up, credit rating, dr’s appts, etc… successful outcomes behaviours goals meaninglessness physiology (immune system) health physiology (cardiovascular recovery from stress) friendships vs. loneliness control beliefs interpersonal expectancies/ attributions DEPRESSION emotions - mind and body are not separated - nutrition can help to treat disorder also, neurochemicals: e.g., serotonin, norepinephrine - more serotonin -> better to cure depression Depression: Cognitive Factors E.g., negative attributional style: blaming oneself excessively for negative outcomes (internal attribution) assuming that one cannot change (stable attribution) catastrophizing and overgeneralizing (global attribution) the...
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This note was uploaded on 09/17/2013 for the course PSY 100H1 taught by Professor Dolderman during the Summer '12 term at University of Toronto.

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