storing information in units of meaningfully process

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: chunking -- storing information in units of - meaningfully process meaning. 6 CIA BOY COMPUTER In class experiment: - test short-term capacity (showing some letters) - ANS: unicef csis kgb naacp - proof good at chucking (involves chunks) ICE CREAM CONE A STITCH IN TIME SAVES NINE Transfer from STM to LTM • For information to be remembered, it needs to be transferred from short-term memory to longterm memory. • Learning how to get better at this will make you and put into a better student... -- learning: sticking informationlearn better long term memory use memory system better = - therefore, transfer STM to LTM - store memories based on meaningful association Levels of Processing Model Craik & Lockhart • The ease with which we can retrieve a memory depends on the number and types of associations that we form with that memory - higher order • LTM storage is based on MEANING…..we do not file our memories under some sort of code system, like old library card stacks. Instead, we store memories based on meaningful associations • Note: deeper levels of processing = greater amount of neural activity - deeper levels of processing = more connection in the brain that connect with meaningful associations • e.g., how to memorize decks of cards with a single exposure • Encoding strategies: the more Meaning, the better Impoverished encoding (poor retention) - brain part -- hypothalamus -- - the more to associate with the material, the better (e.g., connect to personal experience) - involved in emotion Elaborate Encoding (good retention) - brain part - connections with limbic system - involved in emotion - located under the thalamus (hypo=under) - probably active when I'm mad or afraid -- hypothalamus -- - involved in survival drives like hunger and thirst - regulates body temperature - sends messages to pituitary gland - controls autonomic nervous systems Retrieval Cues Provide Access to Long-Term Storage • Retrieval cues help access information, which is why recognition is easier than etrieval cues increase the accessibility recall -- rcue is something will causes neuron fireof related neural nets • The “encoding specificity principle” states any stimulus encoded with an experience can become a trigger Context Dependent Memory • PLACE = retrieval cues! – place characteristics like sound, visual cues, room size, odours, etc., all get encoded with the material you’re remembering • E.g., Smith et al., 1978 • 80 words: same room = 49; di! = 35 - room itself is part of knowledge system • Even state dependent memory e!ects have been found; one’s emotional or physiological state can become part of one’s memory system for information - e.g., be careful when hiding your paycheque when you are drunk - henry was the most studied person in medical history - memory patient (lost ability to form new memories) H.M. • Major epileptic seizures started at age 16 • In the mid 1950s, Henry underwent brain surgery, removing much of his temp...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 09/17/2013 for the course PSY 100H1 taught by Professor Dolderman during the Summer '12 term at University of Toronto.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online