Has innumerable implications for psychology and for

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Unformatted text preview: ications for psychology, and for important societal issues, like prejudice and discrimination. - Amadou Diallo - 23-year-old immigrant from Guinea who was shot and killed in New York City by four New York City Police Department plain-clothed officers - fired a combined total of 41 shots - white polices thought he is pulling out the gun, but in fact he is taking out his wallet - police brutality, racial profiling, and contagious shooting were central to the ensuing controversy - if he is white, will it be the same conclusion? COGNITION EMOTION BEHAVIOUR Stereotype Prejudice Discrimination Stereotype - certain type of analysis Cognitive schema: an organized system of ‘knowledge’ that guides information processing - organized system of belief Fundamentally no different from any concept (i.e., an abstraction, comprised of interconnected beliefs, that organizes our perceptions & guides cognitive, affective & behavioural processes) - theory: high level of organized system to guide information processing - concept: lower level of organized system to guide information processing e.g., Julie Andrews…….your best friend……restaurant……. Professor How do stereotypes perceptions? • Stereotypes colour the meaning of behaviour. E.g., Duncan, 1978 – students watched an ambiguously hostile interaction between a White and Black student; one student shoves the other WHITE ‘shover’ shove was less serious, more playful BLACK ‘shover’ shove was more aggressive & hostile How do stereotypes perceptions? • Stereotypes help us “fill in the blanks;” e.g., the fight on the subway b/w B&W men -- videoreconstructed when passed on story - stereotype: regarding the person, action, emotion - stereotype can change perception, decision, value • Payne, 2001: Would having “Black” vs. “White” on one’s mind change how one made snap judgements about whether an object is a GUN or a TOOL? • Subjects are shown Black or White faces, then an object, and have to decide: GUN or TOOL? - pick either gun or tool in order to make the decision Results: Reaction Times - measure the reaction times Prime 423 441 454 466 Object Results: Misidentification Errors - more likely to misidentify the tool is the gun after seeing black faces Prime 0.25 0.27 0.37 0.31 Object Conclusion? • • • • If “BLACK” is on people’s minds, they will be: Faster to see a gun as a gun Slower to see a tool as a tool (not a gun) More likely to see a tool as a gun But would stereotypes lead us to shoot someone? Josh Correll: inspired by Amadou Diallo story Videogame flashes pictures of White and Black men, holding a gun or other objects (e.g., cell phone, wallet) -- experiment shoot or no shoot quick decision: - must decide right away (DV = REACTION TIMES) White Black Armed 550 539 Unarmed 607 620 (DV = Error Rates/20 trials) White Black Armed 2.5 1.5 Unarmed 2.4 3.3 - negative stereotype towards poor people, blacks, minorities, etc The Power of Suggestion...
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