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Unformatted text preview: ications for psychology, and for important
societal issues, like prejudice and discrimination.
- Amadou Diallo
- 23-year-old immigrant from Guinea who was shot and killed in New York City by four New York City
Police Department plain-clothed ofﬁcers
- ﬁred a combined total of 41 shots
- white polices thought he is pulling out the gun, but in fact he is taking out his wallet
- police brutality, racial proﬁling, and contagious shooting were central to the ensuing controversy
- if he is white, will it be the same conclusion? COGNITION EMOTION BEHAVIOUR Stereotype Prejudice Discrimination Stereotype
- certain type of analysis Cognitive schema: an organized system of ‘knowledge’ that
guides information processing - organized system of belief
Fundamentally no different from any concept (i.e., an
abstraction, comprised of interconnected beliefs, that
organizes our perceptions & guides cognitive, affective &
- theory: high level of organized system to guide information processing
- concept: lower level of organized system to guide information processing e.g., Julie Andrews…….your best friend……restaurant…….
Professor How do stereotypes perceptions?
• Stereotypes colour the meaning of behaviour.
E.g., Duncan, 1978 – students watched an ambiguously hostile
interaction between a White and Black student; one student
shoves the other
WHITE ‘shover’ shove was less serious, more playful
BLACK ‘shover’ shove was more aggressive & hostile How do stereotypes perceptions?
• Stereotypes help us “fill in the blanks;” e.g., the fight on the
subway b/w B&W men -- videoreconstructed when passed on
- stereotype: regarding the person, action, emotion
- stereotype can change perception, decision, value • Payne, 2001: Would having “Black” vs. “White” on one’s mind
change how one made snap judgements about whether an
object is a GUN or a TOOL?
• Subjects are shown Black or White faces, then an object, and
have to decide: GUN or TOOL?
- pick either gun or tool in order to make the decision Results: Reaction Times
- measure the reaction times Prime 423 441 454 466 Object Results: Misidentification Errors
- more likely to misidentify the tool is the gun after seeing black faces Prime 0.25 0.27 0.37 0.31 Object Conclusion?
• If “BLACK” is on people’s minds, they will be:
Faster to see a gun as a gun
Slower to see a tool as a tool (not a gun)
More likely to see a tool as a gun But would stereotypes lead us to shoot
someone? Josh Correll: inspired by Amadou Diallo story Videogame flashes pictures of White and Black
men, holding a gun or other objects (e.g., cell phone,
wallet) -- experiment shoot or no shoot
- must decide right away (DV = REACTION TIMES) White Black Armed 550 539 Unarmed 607 620 (DV = Error Rates/20 trials) White Black Armed 2.5 1.5 Unarmed 2.4 3.3 - negative stereotype towards poor people, blacks, minorities, etc The Power of Suggestion...
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