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Unformatted text preview: oral lobes (including his
hippocampus) - only kept short term memory
• Suddenly, he was stuck in time, unable to encode new
memories. Every moment was a new moment:
- every moment is his new experience - "Right now, I'm wondering, have i done or said anything
amiss? You see, at this moment everything looks clear to me,
but hat happened just before? Thats what worries me. its like
waking from a dream. I just don't remember" H.M. - only work on short term memory • Henry could not remember anything new, but he could
still store information in short-term, working memory.
(therefore STM & LTM involve different systems)
• He could also recall old memories (11-year gap before
• Henry’s case provided the key piece of evidence that
the ability to transfer information into long-term
memory was localized in the hippocampus, but that the
storage of such memories was distributed more widely,
and recalling them did not involve the hippocampus.
• and he could still learn motor skills -- mirror tracing
- transfer info into LTM = stored in hippocampus
- traced picture in front of mirror, even though they had to explain the procedure every time (he doesn't
remember doing it previously), but his ability to trace actually improved Long-Term Memory
• The memory system involved in the longterm storage of information.
Implicit Memory Declarative Memory
- personal experiences Semantic
- facts Procedural
- “muscle” memory Classical
- Pavlov’s dogs Priming
- easier to remember
recent/related items Networks of Associations
- memory = pattern of neuron activation
- how do we keep all this information
organized: keep it functionalized
- metaphoric simpliﬁcation of how your
- the patterns are more easily activated
when things are close in relation (close
to the link) Priming Effects
- easier to remember recent/related items • Priming effects happen because we organize our
memories in these networks of associations. This
helps us organize our thinking, optimizes the efficiency
with which we can retrieve information, and therefore,
enables the smooth, adaptive functioning of our brains.
• But as you know, this means that we are inherently
biased processors, with our memories, perceptions,
etc., being guided by those “nodes” that have recently
been activated in our knowledge nets. Memory is a story
- need retrieval cues • Like perception, memory is a story we tell to
ourselves. It is a re-construction, involving the same
top-down processes involved in basic perception.
• We reconstruct our memories based on retrieval cues,
and the networks of neurons these activate. Perceptions, Prejudice, and Police
Memory & perception are very similar processes, involving us
constructing a representation of reality, and forming the raw
material we draw upon for all our thinking processes.
This is a key theme throughout psychology, and has
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