Unformatted text preview: - IET: measure what kind of association you have • Memory is a fluid process, not a static “storage of
information”. This makes memories far more changeable
than they would otherwise be.
• e.g., Researchers have been able to induce people to “recall”
complicated events from early in life that never actually
happened, such as getting lost in a shopping mall.
• - phoney Disneyland commercial featuring Bugs Bunny 1/3
to recall meeting Bugs at Disneyland
- some even remember speciﬁc details, such as shaking hands with BB or seeing hime in a parade
- remembering the liberation of Holland Memory is a story...
• Remember the priming effects and stereotyping effects we
talked about earlier? Those examples illustrated how our
brains are biased to access certain information depending on
‘recently activated information‘ and ‘chronic habits of the
• Similar biases operate during memory recall, storage and
reconsolidation and can shape our memories in many
In class activity:
- write down the world form ﬁrst list
- bed, sleep (well remember)
- dream, rest (less remembered)
- write down the word from second list
- candy, sweet (well remembered)
- tooth, pie (less remembered)
- actually "sleep" and "sweet" was not on the list
- people reconstruct their memories
- memory is a story (vulnerable to suggestions) e.g., stereotype • - e.g., list 1 & 2
• - e.g., knife attack on the subway The Power of Suggestion
• What does this mean for eyewitness testimony?
- unreliable, misleading, memories been altered • The memories of eyewitnesses can be influenced by:
– The race of the witness and alleged criminal
– Leading questions
– Misleading post-event information
- researchers have been able to induce people to recall complicated event from early in life that never actually
happened, such as getting lost in a shopping mall
- fake disneyland commercial featuring bugs bunny -> 1/3 to recall meeting bugs at disneyland
- some even remember speciﬁc details, such as shaking hands with bb or seeing him in a parade
- bugs bunny = not a disney character Leading Questions: Loftus & Palmer
• Participants viewed a video of a car crash.
• Two conditions:
– Control question: How fast were the two cars
going when they contacted each other?
– Leading question: How fast were the two cars
going when they smashed into each other?
- change of the "word" in the question which alter the memory (same question different tone)
- participants estimate the speed differently Loftus and Palmer Study
- violent, broken car – Smashed = 65.7 km/h
– Contacted = 51.2 km/h • In various scenarios, subjects could also be
lead to remember broken glass (where there
was none), stop signs and other details, etc…
Wording of questions can alter memories.
- might reconstruct or be bias Children’s Testimony
• Children are particularly suggestible, and tend to
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