3.21-3.28 - Intro to International Relations 3.21-3.28...

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Intro. to International Relations 3.21-3.28 United Nations and Military Force During Korean War, majority of UN nations, agreeing that North was the aggressor, went to UN General Assembly to send military force to the region Also around this time, UN becomes engaged in the Congo (20,000 troops?) - Congo was a “failed state” at the time - Larger concern among countries was that UN was acting independently - Ultimately, UN forces are able to settle civil war in the Congo - Major powers concluded that they would not want the UN to act so independently (of Sec. Council, for example) again 1) Resolve to give countries greater control of UN, rather than leaving a lot of power to the Secretary General At the end of the Cold War, UN operations grow - during Cold War, US sent few troops to UN peacekeeping missions 1) began sending more post-Cold War Today, there are issues with the UN and military force - UN does not have standing force, so difficult to mobilize rapidly Voting in the United Nations - Veto power in security council means some issues don’t even come up (if doomed to fail, especially when US threatens a veto) - United States has more problems with the General Assembly 1) For a while, US was voting on “winning side” of issues 2) Since 1960’s, US has been voting on losing side - Did countries “turn” on us in 1970’s and beyond? - Some reacted like this: Was the West creating such problems in the developing world that it caused this change in voting? - Other reactions were like: Let’s just withdraw from the U.N. As U.S. ambassadors to the U.N., Kirkpatrick and Moynihan took approach of saying, sure, we’ll disagree and lose votes, but we’ll be loud about it Third approach: Most small countries don’t have means to send ambassadors to the U.N., so they may send them to other countries where they have relations - For these small countries, the U.N. is a rare chance to interact with other states - General Assembly conveys sense of equality where everybody votes, and so the U.N. is a much bigger deal for small countries than it is for the powerful, like the United States
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Distribution of U.N. Membership by Region 1946 vs. 1982 Region Percentage in 1946 Percentage in 1982 Americans 43 22 Europe 29 20 Oceania 4 4 Asia 16 22 Africa 8 32 (16+4=24) (22+32=54) What were the main U.N. issues at the onset? - focus on Cold War - many votes concerning Africa - series of votes on “supranationalism,” e.g. “What should the power of the United Nations be really ? discussion of role of the United Nations 1) To what extent should U.N. be used to coerce countries to do what they wouldn’t do otherwise? - Issue of Palestine was huge Some of these issues are East-West; others are called “North-South” issues because they concerned relations between developed (north) and underdeveloped (south) states United Nations Voting Groups During the Cold War US/Western Europe North Soviet Union/Eastern Europe West East Latin America South Africa/Asia
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course POLI 211 taught by Professor Stoll during the Spring '06 term at Rice.

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3.21-3.28 - Intro to International Relations 3.21-3.28...

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