Chapter 09 Handout

Increases rapidly during early childhood language

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Unformatted text preview: childhood Language comprehension develops before language production Children engage in fast mapping to build vocabulary quickly – this refers to connecting a new word with an underlying concept Vocabulary development is o Faster in girls than in boys o Slower among shy or negative-tempered children o Slower among low-SES children Toddlers mostly use referential speech – words that refer to objects (e.g., ball or duck) Some toddlers exhibit expressive speech – social concepts and pronouns (e.g., “Thank you” or “I want it.”) Object words typically emerge first, followed by action words Common errors include: o Underextension: applying words too narrowly (e.g., only the special pet is called “dog”) o Overextension: applying words too broadly (e.g., all four legged animals are called dogs) In middle childhood, reading contributes to further vocabulary development In adolescence, abstract reasoning skills lead to increased vocabulary and understanding of subtleties such as irony or sarcasm VI. GRAMMATICAL DEVELOPMENT • • Between 1 ½ and 2 ½ years: children combine words to express meaning, leaving out unimportant words – telegraphic speech Grammatical rules are gradually pieced together with 3+ word sentences • • • • Children gradually add grammatical morphemes – small markers that alter meaning (e.g., adding –s or –ed to the end of a word) Early grammatical morphemes are often overregularized – extended to words that are exceptions (e.g., “Daddy go-ed to work”) Grammar gradually improves from ages 3 ½ to age 6 years, with further refinement continues during middle childhood Theories of grammatical development: o Semantic bootstrapping: children use word meanings to figure out sentence structure o children master grammar through direct observation of language structure o grammatical categories are innate (Chomsky’s nativist theory) o children have built-in procedures for analyzing language o adults provide feedback about grammatical errors (using recasts & expansions) VII. PRAGMATIC DEVELOPMENT • Examples of pragmatics include turn-taking, staying on topic, stating messages clearly, and conforming to cultural rules for social interactions • Most 2-year-olds are effective communicators, and this is influenced by early child-caregiver interactions • In early and middle childhood, more advanced strategies emerge: o Turnabout: commenting on what the other person said and then adding a question to • • • • • get the partner to respond again o Shading: initiating a change of topic gradually by modifying the focus of discussion o Illocutionary intent: understanding a speaker’s intent even if the utterance is perfectly consistent (e.g., “I need a pencil” understood as “give me a pencil.”) Conversational skills are influenced by: o Adult-child interactions o Presence of siblings o Dialogues about storybooks Children as young as 3 years, preschoolers ask others to clarify unclear m...
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This note was uploaded on 09/25/2013 for the course PSYC 311 taught by Professor Matzenbacher during the Fall '12 term at McNeese.

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