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concrete objects. However, even 4- and 5-year-olds have problems resolving ambiguities.
Dramatic improvements in the ability to produce organized, detailed narratives are observed
between the ages of 4 and 6, when narratives progress from “leapfrog” narratives to more
extensive, chronological narratives.
Beginning in the preschool years, children are sensitive to speech registers – adapting
language to social expectations. There are vast cultural differences in these expectations, and
this produces cultural differences in children’s sociolinguistic awareness.
Drastic improvements in sociolinguistic understanding are observed in adolescence, when
teens exhibit different manners of speech in different situations (e.g., at work, at home, on a
date, while giving a speech, etc.). VIII. METALINGUISTIC AWARENESS
• Metalinguistic awareness: the ability to think about language as a system
This ability ﬁrst emerges during early childhood, and signiﬁcant advances occur throughout
These abilities inﬂuence later vocabulary and grammatical development IX. BILINGUALISM
• Children who learn two languages in early childhood separate the two language systems from
the beginning and acquire each according to a typical timetable
When a child learns a 2nd language after mastering the ﬁrst, it takes 5-7 years to master the
competence of native speakers
o Sometimes engage in code switching – producing speech in one language that contains
one or more words from the other language
o Exhibit advanced cognitive abilities
o Exhibit advanced metalinguistic awareness ** NOTE: The MILESTONES CHART on pg.394 provides a good overview of developmental
progress in phonology, semantics, grammar, & pragmatics....
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This note was uploaded on 09/25/2013 for the course PSYC 311 taught by Professor Matzenbacher during the Fall '12 term at McNeese.
- Fall '12