Chapter 09 Handout

Preschoolers ask others to clarify unclear messages

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Unformatted text preview: essages about concrete objects. However, even 4- and 5-year-olds have problems resolving ambiguities. Dramatic improvements in the ability to produce organized, detailed narratives are observed between the ages of 4 and 6, when narratives progress from “leapfrog” narratives to more extensive, chronological narratives. Beginning in the preschool years, children are sensitive to speech registers – adapting language to social expectations. There are vast cultural differences in these expectations, and this produces cultural differences in children’s sociolinguistic awareness. Drastic improvements in sociolinguistic understanding are observed in adolescence, when teens exhibit different manners of speech in different situations (e.g., at work, at home, on a date, while giving a speech, etc.). VIII. METALINGUISTIC AWARENESS • • • Metalinguistic awareness: the ability to think about language as a system This ability first emerges during early childhood, and significant advances occur throughout middle childhood These abilities influence later vocabulary and grammatical development IX. BILINGUALISM • • • Children who learn two languages in early childhood separate the two language systems from the beginning and acquire each according to a typical timetable When a child learns a 2nd language after mastering the first, it takes 5-7 years to master the competence of native speakers Bilingual children: o Sometimes engage in code switching – producing speech in one language that contains one or more words from the other language o Exhibit advanced cognitive abilities o Exhibit advanced metalinguistic awareness ** NOTE: The MILESTONES CHART on pg.394 provides a good overview of developmental progress in phonology, semantics, grammar, & pragmatics....
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