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Unformatted text preview: 乐！你们终将获得快乐。 Exercise 1 Questions 1 to 3 are based on the following reading passage.
Immediately relevant to game theory are the sex
ratios in certain parasitic wasp species that have a
large excess of females. In these species, fertilized eggs
Line develop into females and unfertilized eggs into males.
A female stores sperm and can determine the sex of
each egg she lays by fertilizing it or leaving it
unfertilized. By Fisher‘s genetic argument that the sex
ratio will be favored which maximizes the number of
descendants an individual will have and hence the
10 number of gene copies transmitted, it should pay a
female to produce equal numbers of sons and daughters.
Hamilton, noting that the eggs develop within their
host—the larva of another insect—and that the newly
emerged adult wasps mate i mmediately and disperse,
15 offered a remarkably cogent analysis. Since only one
female usually lays eggs in a given larva, it would pay
her to produce one male only, because this one male
could fertilize all his sisters on emergence. Like Fisher,
Hamilton looked for an evolutionarily stable strategy,
20 but he went a step further in recognizing that he was
looking for a strategy. 1. The author suggests that the work of Fisher and
Hamilton was similar in that both scientists
(A) conducted their research at approximately
the same time
(B) sought to manipulate the sex ratios of some
of the animals they studied
(C) sought an explanation of why certain sex
ratios exist and remain stable
(D) studied game theory, thereby providing i mportant
groundwork for the later development of strategy
(E) studied reproduction in the same animal species
F or the following question, consider each of the
choices separately and select all that apply
2. The passage contains information that would
answer which of the following questions about
□ How many eggs does the female wasp
usually lay in a single host larva?
B Can some species of wasp determine sex
ratios among their offspring?
□ What is the approximate sex ratio
among the offspring of parasitic wasps?
3. Which of the following is NOT true of the species of
parasitic wasps discussed in the passage?
(A) Adult female wasps are capable of storing sperm.
(B) Female wasps lay their eggs in the larvae of
(C) The adult female wasp can be fertilized by a male that
was hatched in the same larva as herself.
(D) So few male wasps are produced that extinction is
(E) Male wasps do not emerge from their hosts until they
reach sexual maturity. 1 Questions 4 to 5 are based on the following reading passage.
Tocqueville, apparently, was wrong. Jacksonian 4. According to the passage, Pessen indicates that all of America was not a fluid, egalitarian society where the following were true of the very wealthy in the United individual wealth and poverty were ephemeral States between 1825 and 1850 EXCEPT: Line conditions. At least to argues E. Pessen in his
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- Fall '13