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Unformatted text preview: en detected so Phinney estimates that the probability of these rocks
hitting Mars is about one-tenth as great as that of Mars's
rocks hitting Earth. To demonstrate this estimate, Phinney
used a computer to calculate where 1,000 hypothetical on Mars. particles would go if ejected from Earth in random D
○ The velocity of rocks escaping from Earth's gravity is
lower than the velocity of meteorites hitting the Earth.
○ No craters more than 60 miles across have directions. He found that 17 of the 1,000 particles would
hit Mars. been found on Mars. 72 [This page is intentionally left blank. ] 73 F or each of Questions 5-8, select one answer choice
unless otherwise instructed.
Questions 5 to 8 are based on the following reading
Present-day philosophers usually envision their 35 nineteenth century. Without the idea of epistemology, the discipline as an endeavor that has been, since antiquity, survival of philosophy in an age of modern science is distinct from and superior to any particular intellectual hard to imagine. Metaphysics, philosophy‘s traditional
core—considered as the most general description of how Line discipline such as theology or science. The basis for this
5 view, however, lies in a serious misinterpretation of the 40 the heavens and the earth are put together—had been past, a projection of modern concerns onto past events.
The idea of an autonomous discipline called ―philosophy,‖ spectacular progress of physics. Kant, however, by distinct from and sitting in judgment on such pursuits as focusing philosophy on the problem of knowledge, theology and science turns out, on close examination, to
10 rendered almost completely meaningless by the managed to replace metaphysics with epistemology, and be of quite recent origin. When, in the seventeenth 45 thus to transform the notion of philosophy as ―queen of century, Descartes and Hobbes rejected medieval
philosophy, they did not think of themselves, as modern foundational discipline: philosophy became ―primary‖ no philosophers do, as proposing a new and better longer in the sense of ―highest‖ but in the sense of philosophy, but rather as furthering ―the warfare between
15 sciences‖ into the new notion of philosophy as a separate, ―underlying‖. science and theology.‖ They were fighting, albeit
discreetly, to open the intellectual world to the new
science and to liberate intellectual life from ecclesiastical
philosophy and envisioned their work as contributing to
the growth, not of philosophy, but of research in 20 mathematics and physics. This link between philosophical
interests and scientific practice persisted until the
nineteenth century, when decline in ecclesiastical power
o ver scholarship and changes in the nature of science
provoked the final separation of philosophy from both. 25 The demarcation of philosophy from science was
facilitated by the development in the early nineteenth
century of a new notion, that philosophy‘s core interest
should be ep...
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- Fall '13