A negative rossby wave a wave of depressed or

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Unformatted text preview: l to release pollen when wind speeds are low or when humid conditions prevail. Recent studies suggest another way in which species compensate for the inefficiency of wind pollination. These studies suggest that species frequently take advantage of the physics of pollen motion by generating specific aerodynamic environments within the immediate vicinity of their female reproductive organs. It is the morphology of these organs that dictates the pattern of airflow disturbances through which pollen must travel. The speed and direction of the airflow disturbances can combine with the physical properties of a species' pollen to produce a species-specific pattern of pollen collision on the surfaces of female reproductive organs. Provided that these surfaces are strategically located, the consequences of this combination can significantly increase the pollen-capture efficiency of a female reproductive organ. A critical question that remains to be answered is whether the morphological attributes of the female reproductive organs of wind-pollinated species are evolutionary adaptations to wind pollination or are merely fortuitous. A complete resolution of the question is as yet impossible since adaptation must be evaluated for each species within its own unique functional context. However, it must be said that, while evidence of such evolutionary adaptations does exist in some species, one must be careful about attributing morphology to adaptation. For example, the spiral arrangement of 150 6.The author of the passage is primarily concerned 8. The passage suggests that the recent studies cited in the with discussing second paragraph have not done which of the following? (A) the current debate on whether the morphological (A) Made any distinctions between different species attributes of wind-pollinated plants are of wind-pollinated plants. evolutionary adaptations (B) Considered the physical properties of the pollen (B) the kinds of airflow patterns that permit wind- that is produced by wind-pollinated plants. pollinated plants to capture pollen most effi- (C) Indicated the general range within which plant- ciently generated airflow disturbances are apt to (C) the ways in which the reproductive processes of occur. wind-pollinated plants are controlled by (D) Included investigations of the physics of pollen random events motion and its relationship to the efficient (D) a recently proposed explanation of a way in capture of pollen by the female reproductive which wind-pollinated plants reduce pollen organs of wind-pollinated plants. waste (E) Demonstrated that the morphological attributes (E) a specific morphological attribute that permits of the female reproductive organs of wind- one species of wind-pollinated plant to pollinated plants are usually evolutionary capture pollen adaptations to wind pollination. 7. According to the passage, the "aerodynamic 9. It can be inferred from the passage that the claim environments" mentioned in the second paragraph, tha...
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