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Unformatted text preview: damental understanding of how
20 about the recent research mentioned in the last
sentence ? implant devices adhere to tissues remains woefully
incomplete. (A) It has solved one set of problems but has (159 words) created another.
(B) It has concentrated on secondary concerns
but has ignored primary concerns.
(C) It has improved practical applications of
biomaterial technology without providing a
complete theoretical explanation of that
(D) It has thoroughly investigated properties of
biomaterials but has paid little attention
to relevant characteristics of human tissue.
(E) It has provided considerable information on
short-term implant technology but little
on long-term implant technology. 53 Islamic law is a particularly instructive example of
―sacred law.‖ Islamic law is a phenomenon so different
from all other forms of law—notwithstanding, of course,
Line a considerable and inevitable number of coincidences
with one or the other of them as far as subject matter and
positive enactment are concerned—that its study is
indispensable in order to appreciate adequately the full
range of possible legal phenomena. Even the two other
representatives of sacred law that are historically and
10 geographically nearest to it, Jewish law and Roman
Catholic canon law, are perceptibly different.
Both Jewish law and canon law are more uniform
than Islamic law. Though historically there is a
discernible break between Jewish law of the sovereign
15 state of ancient Israel and of the Diaspora (the dispersion
of Jewish people after the conquest of Israel), the spirit of
the legal matter in later parts of the Old Testament is very
close to that of the Talmud, one of the primary
codifications of Jewish law in the Diaspora. Islam, on the
20 other hand, represented a radical breakaway from the
Arab paganism that preceded it; Islamic law is the result
of an examination, from a religious angle, of legal subject
matter that was far from uniform, comprising as it did the
various components of the laws of pre-Islamic Arabia and
25 numerous legal elements taken over from the non-Arab
peoples of the conquered territories. All this was unified
by being subjected to the same kind of religious scrutiny,
the impact of which varied greatly, being almost
nonexistent in some fields, and in others originating novel
30 institutions. This central duality of legal subject matter
and religious norm is additional to the variety of legal,
ethical, and ritual rules that is typical of sacred law.
In its relation to the secular state, Islamic law
differed from both Jewish and canon law. Jewish law was
35 buttressed by the cohesion of the community, reinforced
by pressure from outside; its rules are the direct
expression of this feeling of cohesion, tending toward the
accommodation of dissent. Canon and Islamic law, on the
contrary, were dominated by the dualism of religion and
40 state, where the state was not, in contrast with Judaism,
an alien power but the political expr...
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This document was uploaded on 09/16/2013.
- Fall '13