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Unformatted text preview: ction which causes the pressure to drop. As (E) reverse the direction of refrigerant flow when the pressure falls, the refrigerant expands and partially
vaporizes, becoming chilled. It then passes needed through a second heat exchanger, the evaporator, which transfers
heat from the air to the refrigerant, reducing the
15 temperature of this second body of air.
(126 words) 40 Traditionally, the study of history has had fixed 2. Which of the following best states the main point of boundaries and focal points—periods, countries, the passage? dramatic events, and great leaders. It also has had clear (A) The approach of psychohistorians to historical Line and firm notions of scholarly procedure: how one study is currently in vogue even though it 5 inquires into a historical problem, how one presents and lacks the rigor and verifiability of traditional documents one‘s findings, what constitutes admissible historical method. and adequate proof. The recent popular psychohistory, (B) Traditional historians can benefit from studying committed to Freudian psychoanalysis, takes a radically the techniques and findings of psychohis- different approach. This commitment precludes a
10 torians. commitment to history as historians have always (C) Areas of sociological study such as childhood understood it. Psychohistory derives its ―facts‖ not from and work are of little interest to traditional history, the detailed records of events and their historians.
(D) The psychological assessment of an individual‘s consequences, but from psychoanalysis of the
individuals who made history, and deduces its theories
not from this or that instance in their lives, but from a than the details of his or her daily life. view of human nature that transcends history. It denies 15 behavior and attitudes is more informative
(E) History is composed of unique and nonrepeat- the basic criterion of historical evidence: that evidence ing events that must be individually analyzed be publicly accessible to, and therefore assessable by, on the basis of publicly verifiable evidence. all historians. Psychohistorians, convinced of the
20 3. The author of the passage puts the word ―deepest‖ in absolute rightness of their own theories, are also
convinced that theirs is the ―deepest‖ explanation of any quotation marks most probably in order to
(A) question the usefulness of psychohistorians‘ event that other explanations fall short of the truth. insights into traditional historical scholarship
(B) draw attention to a contradiction in the
(C) emphasize the major difference between the
traditional historians‘ method and
that of psychohistorians
(D) disassociate her opinion of the psychohistorians‘
claims from her opinion of their method
(E) signal her reservations about the accuracy
of psychohistorians‘ claims for their work 41 Eight percent of the Earth‘s crust is aluminum, and 4. The author implies that a mineral must either be or there are hundr...
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This document was uploaded on 09/16/2013.
- Fall '13