In eighteenth century france the le nain depicts its

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Unformatted text preview: Acknowledgement of her technical expertise lifetime, even if her talent did not go completely unrecog20 but dismissal of her subject matter as trivial nized by her eighteenth-century French contemporaries. (C) Agreement with assessments made in her own time but acknowledgements of the exceptional quality of a few of her paintings (D) Placement of her among the foremost artists of her century (E) A reclassification of her work as portraiture rather than genre painting 9. Select the sentence in the passage in which the author indicates that aesthetic judgments can be influenced by the political beliefs of those making the judgment. 37 Flatfish, such as the flounder, are among the few vertebrates that lack approximate bilateral symmetry (symmetry in which structures to the left and right of the Line body‘s midline are mirror images). Most striking among 5 the many asymmetries evident in an adult flatfish is eye placement: before maturity one eye migrates, so that in an adult flatfish both eyes are on the same side of the head. While in most species with asymmetries virtually all adults share the same asymmetry, members of the 10 starry flounder species can be either left-eyed (both eyes on the left side of head) or right-eyed. In the waters between the United States and Japan, the starry flounder populations vary from about 50 percent left-eyed off the United States West Coast, through about 70 percent 15 left-eyed halfway between the United States and Japan, to nearly 100 percent left-eyed off the Japanese coast. Biologists call this kind of gradual variation over a certain geographic rang a ―cline‖ and interpret clines as strong indications that the variation is adaptive, a 20 response to environmental differences. For the starry flounder this interpretation implies that a geometric difference (between fish that are mirror images of one another) is adaptive, that left-eyedness in the Japanese starry flounder has been selected for, which provokes a 25 perplexing questions: what is the selective advantage in having both eyes on one side rather than on the other? The ease with which a fish can reverse the effect of the sidedness of its eye asymmetry simply by turning around has caused biologists to study internal anatomy, 30 especially the optic nerves, for the answer. In all flatfish the optic nerves cross, so that the right optic nerve is joined to the brain‘s left side and vice versa. This crossing introduces an asymmetry, as one optic nerve must cross above or below the other. G. H. Parker 35 reasoned that if, for example, a flatfish‘s left eye migrated when the right optic nerve was on top, there would be a twisting of nerves, which might be mechanically disadvantageous. For starr y flounders, then, the left-eyed variety would be selected against, since in a 40 starry flounder the left optic nerve is uppermost. The problem with the above explanation is that the Japanese starry flounder population is almost exclusively left-eyed, and natural sel...
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This document was uploaded on 09/16/2013.

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