In the second paragraph 177 although a historical

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Unformatted text preview: bate whether nearly means photography is or is not a fine art, except to proclaim that their own work is not involved with art, shows the extent A ○ subversive to which they simply take for granted the concept of art B ○ unambiguous imposed by the triumph of Modernism: the better the art, C ○ equivocal the more subversive it is of the traditional aims of art. D ○ disreputable E ○ contradictory (142 words) 180 Exercise 32 The recent change to all-volunteer armed forces in the F or the following question, consider each of the United States will eventually produce a gradual increase in choices separately and select all that apply the proportion of women in the armed forces and in the 1. The passage implies that which of the following is a variety of women ‘s assignments, but probably not the factor conducive to a more equitable representation dramatic gains for women that might have been expected. of women in the United States armed forces than This is so even though the armed forces operate in an ethos has existed in the past? of institutional change oriented toward occupational equality and under the federal sanction of equal pay for A The all-volunteer character of the present equal work. The difficulty is that women are unlikely to be armed forces trained for any direct combat operations; a significant B The past service records of women who had portion of the larger society remains uncomfortable as yet assignments functionally equivalent to men‘s with extending equality in this direction. Therefore, for assignments women in the military, the search for equality will still be C Restrictive past policies governing the military based on functional equivalence, not identity or even similarity of task. assignments open to women (132 words) 181 About a century ago, the Swedish physical scientist molecules, such as interstellar for maldehyde, in dark clouds Arrhenius proposed a law of classical chemistry that relates of interstellar dust. Afterward complex organic molecules chemical reaction rate to temperature. According to the would be formed, slowly but surely, by means of tunneling. Arrhenius equation, chemical reaction are increasingly After I offered my hypothesis, Hoyle and Wickramasinghe unlikely to occur as temperatures approach absolute zero, argued that molecules of interstellar formaldehyde have and at absolute zero (zero degrees Kelvin, or minus 273 indeed evolved into stable polysaccharides such as degrees Celsius) reactions stop. However, recent cellulose and starch. Their conclusions, although strongly experimental evidence reveals that although the Arrhenius disputed, have generated excitement among investigators equation is generally accurate in describing the kind of such as myself who are proposing that the galactic clouds chemical reaction that occurs at relatively high are the places where the prebiological evolution of temperatures, at temperatures closer to zero a quant um- compounds necessary to life occurred. mech...
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