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Unformatted text preview: ple, is the following would be true? assessed by inspecting balls; any observation of a non red (A) The new observation would be rejected as ball refutes unequivocally the proposed generalization. untrue. For W.V.O. Quine, however, this constitutes an overly (B) Both the observation and the statement in our ―narrow‖ conception of empiricism. ―All balls are red,‖ he system that it contradicted would be maintains, forms one strand within an entire web of discarded. statements (our knowledge); individual observations can be (C) New observations would be added to our web referred only to this web as a whole. As new observations of statements in order to expand our system are collected, he explains, they must be integrated into the of knowledge. web. Problems occur only if a contradiction develops (D) The observation or some part of our web of between a new observation, say, ―That ball is blue,‖ and the statements would need to be adjusted to preexisting statements. In that case, he argues, any resolve the contradiction. statement or combination of statements (not merely the (E) An entirely new field of knowledge would be ―offending‖ generalization, as in classical empiricism) can created. be altered to achieve the fundamental requirement, a system
free of contradictions, even if, in some cases, the alteration F or the following question, consider each of the consists of labeling the new observation a ―hallucination.‖ choices separately and select all that apply (172 words) 2. It can be inferred from the passage that Quine
considers classical empiricism to be ―overly
‗narrow‘ ‖for which of the following reasons?
A Classical empiricism requires that our system
of generalizations be free of contradictions.
B Classical empiricism demands that in the case
of a contradiction between an individual
observation and a generalization, the
generalization must be abandoned.
C Classical empiricism asserts that every observation
will either confirm an existing generalization
or initiate a new generalization. 125 Shergottites, the name given to three anomalous 3. The passage provides information to answer which achondrites (igneous meteorites lacking chondrules) so far of the following questions? discovered on Earth, present scientists with a genuine (A) What is the precise age of the solar system? enigma. Shergottites crystallized from molten rock less (B) How did shergottites get their name? than 1.1 billion years ago (some 3.5 billion years later than (C) What are the chemical properties shared by typical achondrites) and were presumably ejected into shergottites and Martian soils? space when an object impacted on a body similar in (D) How volcanically active is the planet Jupiter? chemical composition to Earth. While some scientists (E) What is a major feature of the Martian surface? speculate that shergottites derive from Io (a volcanically
active moon of Jupiter), recent measurements suggest that F or the following question, consider each of...
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- Fall '13