Unformatted text preview: uot;Many a n ew pitcher has been found to be full of old wine." equivalent of which of the following elements in the Creative ideas not only produce their own instruments of author's discussion of democracy? survival as time and circumstances demand, but permit the (A) Ancient Greece substitution of new forms for old under the pressure of (B) The idea of democracy changed circumstances. For example democracy, as an idea, (C) A modern democratic government originated in ancient Greece and was carried from there to (D) A dynamic principle Western Europe and the Americas. But it did not retain the (E) The Greek form of democracy ancient Greek form: it passed through several reforming
processes and exists today in many countries. Democratic
governments differ in form because democracy is in principle
dynamic and has therefore responded to local needs.
(141 words) 199 Aided by the recent ability to analyze samples of air present interglacial period it has more than doubled in just trapped in glaciers, scientists now have a clearer idea of the past 300 years and is rising rapidly. Although the the relationship between atmospheric composition and concentration of atmospheric methane is more than two global temperature change over the past 160,000 years. orders of magnitude lower than that of carbon dioxide, it In particular, determination of at mospheric composition cannot be ignored: the radiative properties of methane during periods of glacial expansion and retreat (cooling make it 20 times more effective, molecule for molecule, and warming) is possible using data from the 2,000-meter than carbon dioxide in absorbing radiant heat. On the Vostok ice core drilled in Antarctica. The technique basis of a simulation model that climatological involved is similar to that used in analyzing cores of researchers have developed, methane appears to have marine sediments, where the ratio of the two common been about 25 percent as important as carbon dioxide in 18 16 isotopes of oxygen, O and O, accurately reflects past the warming that took place during the most recent glacial temperature changes. Isotopic analysis of oxygen in the retreat 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. Vostok core suggests mean global temperature (445 words) fluctuations of up to 10 degrees centigrade over the past
Data from the Vostok core also indicate that the
amount of carbon dioxide has fluctuated with temperature
o ver the same period: the higher the temperature, the
higher the concentration of carbon dioxide and the lower
the temperature, the lower the concentration. Although
change in carbon dioxide content closely follows change
in temperature during periods of deglaciation, it
apparently lags behind temperature during periods of
cooling. The correlation of carbon dioxide with
temperature, of course, does not establish whether
changes in atmospheric composition caused the warming
and cooling trends or were caused by them.
The correlation between carbon dioxide and
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This document was uploaded on 09/16/2013.
- Fall '13