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Unformatted text preview: ession of the same
religion. But the conflict between state and religion took
different forms; in Christianity it appeared as the struggle
for political power on the part of a tightly organized
45 ecclesiastical hierarchy, and canon law was one of its
political weapons. Islamic law, on the other hand, was
never supported by an organized institution; consequently,
there never developed an overt trial of strength. There merely existed discordance between application of the
50 sacred law and many of the regulations framed by
Islamic states; this antagonism varied according to place
and time. 54 F or the following question, consider each of the 5. Which of the following most accurately describes choices separately and select all that apply the organization of the passage? 3. The passage provides information to answer (A) A universal principle is advanced and then which of the following questions EXCEPT?
A Does Islamic law depend on sources other
□ discussed in relation to a particular
historical phenomenon. than Arab legal principles? (B) A methodological innovation is suggested B
□ What secular practices of Islamic states and then examples of its efficacy are conflicted with Islamic law? provided. C
□ Is Jewish law more uniform than canon
law? (C) A traditional interpretation is questioned
and then modified to include new data.
(D) A general opinion is expressed and then 4. It can be inferred from the passage that the supportive illustrations are advanced. application of Islamic law in Islamic states has (E) A controversial viewpoint is presented and (A) systematically been opposed by groups who then both supportive evidence and believe it is contrary to their interests contradictory evidence are cited. (B) suffered irreparably from the lack of firm
institutional backing 6. The passage suggests that canon law differs (C) frequently been at odds with the legal from Islamic law in that only canon law activity of government institutions (A) contains prescriptions that nonsacred legal (D) remained unaffected by the political forces systems might regard as properly legal operating alongside it (B) concerns itself with the duties of a person in (E) benefited from the fact that it never regard to the community as a whole experienced a direct confrontation with (C) was affected by the tension of the conflict the state between religion and state
(D) developed in a political environment that
did not challenge its fundamental existence
(E) played a role in the direct confrontation
between institutions vying for power 55 If a supernova (the explosion of a massive star) trig- 8. The passage implies that, according to the new gered star formation from dense clouds of gas and dust, theory of spiral-galaxy structure, a spiral galaxy can and if the most massive star to be formed from the cloud be created by supernovas when the supernovas are evolved into a supernova and triggered a new round of (A) producing an underlying density wave star formation, and so on, the...
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This document was uploaded on 09/16/2013.
- Fall '13