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Unformatted text preview: ch is sometimes added during smelting to remove waste material from the ore, could add quantities of elements to the final product. 20 An elemental property that is unchanged through these chemical processes is the isotopic composition of each metallic element in the ore. Isotopic composition, the percentages of the different isotopes of an element in a given sample of the element, is therefore particularly suitable as an 25 indicator of the sources of the ore. Of course, for this purpose it is necessary to find an element whose isotopic composition is more or less constant throughout a given ore body, but varies from one copper ore body to another or, at least, from one geographic region to another. 30 The ideal choice, when isotopic composition is used to investigate the source of copper ore, would seem to be copper itself. It has been shown that small but measurable variations occur naturally in the isotopic composition of copper. However, the variations are large enou gh only in rare 35 ores; between samples of the common ore minerals of copper, isotopic variations greater than the measurement error have not been found. An alternative choice is lead, which occurs in most copper and bronze artifacts of the Bronze Age in amounts consistent with the lead being derived from the 40 copper ores and possibly from the fluxes. The isotopic composition of lead often varies from one source of common copper ore to another, with variations exceeding the measurement error; and preliminary studies indicate virtually uniform isotopic composition of the lead from a 45 single copper-ore source. While some of the lead found in an artifact may have been introduced from flux or when other metals were added to the copper ore, lead so added in Bronze Age processing would usually have the same isotopic 50 66 composition as the lead in the copper ore. Lead isotope studies may thus prove useful for interpreting the archaeological record of the Bronze Age. (473 words) 4. The author first mentions the addition of flux during smelting in the last sentence in the last paragraph in order to (A) give a reason for the failure of elemental composition studies to determine ore sources (B) illustrate differences bet ween various Bronze Age civilizations (C) show the need for using high smelting temperatures (D) illustrate the uniformity of lead isotope composition (E) explain the success of copper isotope composition analysis 6. Select the sentence in the passage that the author rejects copper as the ―ideal choice‖. 7. It can be inferred from the passage that the use of flux in processing copper ore can alter the lead isotope composition of the resulting metal EXCEPT when (A) there is a smaller concentration of lead in the flux than in the copper ore (B) the concentration of lead in the flux is equivalent to that of the lead in the ore (C) some of the lead in the flux evaporates during processing (D) any lead in the flux has the same isotopic composition as the lead in the ore (E...
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This document was uploaded on 09/16/2013.

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