To observe a singularity an 6 which of the following

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Unformatted text preview: n studying phenomena that occur near one. Unfortunately, in phenomena near singularities would most cases a distant observer cannot see the necessarily hope to find a singularity singularity; outgoing light rays are dragged back by with a measurable gravitational field. gravity so forcefully that even if they could start out (B) Accordingly, physicists to date have within a few kilometers of the singularity, they would end been unable to observe directly any up in the singularity itself. singularity. (C) It is specifically this startling phenomenon that has allowed us to codify the scant information currently available about singularities. (D) Moreover, the existence of this extraordinary phenomenon is implied in the extensive reports of several physicists. (E) Although unanticipated, phenomena such as these are consistent with the structure of a singularity. 9 The evolution of intelligence among early large mammals of the grasslands was due in great measure to the interaction between two ecologically synchronized Line groups of these animals, the hunting carnivores and the 5 herbivores that they hunted. The interaction resulting from the differences between predator and prey led to a general improvement in brain functions; however, certain components of intelligence were i mproved far more than others. 10 The kind of intelligence favored by the interplay of increasingly smarter catchers and increasingly keener escapers is defined by attention—that aspect of mind carrying consciousness forward from one moment to the next. It ranges from a passive, free-floating awareness to 15 a highly focused, active fixation. The range through these states is mediated by the arousal system, a network of tracts converging from sensory systems to integrating centers in the brain stem. From the more relaxed to the more vigorous levels, sensitivity to novelty is increased. 20 The organism is more awake, more vigilant; this increased vigilance results in the apprehension of ever more subtle signals as the organism becomes more sensitive to its surroundings. The processes of arousal and concentration give attention its direction. Arousal is at 25 first general, with a flooding of impulses in the brain stem; then gradually the activation is channeled. Thus begins concentration, the holding of consistent images. One meaning of intelligence is the way in which these images and other alertly searched information are used in the 30 context of previous experience. Consciousness links past attention to the present and permits the integration of details with perceived ends and purposes. The elements of intelligence and consciousness come together marvelously to produce different styles in 35 predator and prey. Herbivores and carnivores develop different kinds of attention related to escaping or chasing. Although in both kinds of animal, arousal stimulates the production of adrenaline and norepinephrine by the adrenal glands, the effect in herbivores is primarily fear, 40 wher...
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This document was uploaded on 09/16/2013.

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