Unformatted text preview: n studying phenomena that occur near one. Unfortunately, in phenomena near singularities would most cases a distant observer cannot see the necessarily hope to find a singularity singularity; outgoing light rays are dragged back by with a measurable gravitational field. gravity so forcefully that even if they could start out (B) Accordingly, physicists to date have within a few kilometers of the singularity, they would end been unable to observe directly any up in the singularity itself. singularity.
(C) It is specifically this startling phenomenon
that has allowed us to codify the scant
information currently available about
(D) Moreover, the existence of this extraordinary phenomenon is implied in the
extensive reports of several physicists.
(E) Although unanticipated, phenomena such
as these are consistent with the structure
of a singularity. 9 The evolution of intelligence among early large
mammals of the grasslands was due in great measure to
the interaction between two ecologically synchronized
Line groups of these animals, the hunting carnivores and the
herbivores that they hunted. The interaction resulting
from the differences between predator and prey led to a
general improvement in brain functions; however, certain
components of intelligence were i mproved far more than
The kind of intelligence favored by the interplay of
increasingly smarter catchers and increasingly keener
escapers is defined by attention—that aspect of mind
carrying consciousness forward from one moment to the
next. It ranges from a passive, free-floating awareness to
15 a highly focused, active fixation. The range through these
states is mediated by the arousal system, a network of
tracts converging from sensory systems to integrating
centers in the brain stem. From the more relaxed to the
more vigorous levels, sensitivity to novelty is increased.
20 The organism is more awake, more vigilant; this
increased vigilance results in the apprehension of ever
more subtle signals as the organism becomes more
sensitive to its surroundings. The processes of arousal and
concentration give attention its direction. Arousal is at
25 first general, with a flooding of impulses in the brain stem;
then gradually the activation is channeled. Thus begins
concentration, the holding of consistent images. One
meaning of intelligence is the way in which these images
and other alertly searched information are used in the
30 context of previous experience. Consciousness links past
attention to the present and permits the integration of
details with perceived ends and purposes.
The elements of intelligence and consciousness come
together marvelously to produce different styles in
35 predator and prey. Herbivores and carnivores develop
different kinds of attention related to escaping or chasing.
Although in both kinds of animal, arousal stimulates the
production of adrenaline and norepinephrine by the
adrenal glands, the effect in herbivores is primarily fear,
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This document was uploaded on 09/16/2013.
- Fall '13