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Unformatted text preview: phology but also human behavior. The role those anthropologists Line ascribe to evolution is not of dictating the details of 5 human behavior but one of imposing constraints— ways of feeling, thinking, and acting that ―come n aturally‖ in archetypal situations in any culture. Our ―frailties‖ –emotions and motives such as rage, fear, greed, gluttony, joy, lust, love— may be a very mixed 10 assortment, but they share at least one immediate quality: we are, as we say, ―in the grip‖ of them. And thus they give us our sense of constraints. Unhappily, some of those frailties—our need for ever-increasing security among them— are presently 15 maladaptive. Yet beneath the overlay of cultural detail, they, too, are said to be biological in direction, and therefore as natural to us as are our appendixes. We would need to comprehend thoroughly their adaptive origins in order to understand how badly they 20 guide us now. And we might then begin to resist their pressure. 1. Which of the following most probably provides an appropriate analogy from human morphology for the ―details‖ versus ―constraints‖ distinction made in the passage in relation to human behavior? (A) The ability of most people to see all the colors of the visible spectrum as against most people‘s inability to name any but the primary colors (B) The ability of even the least fortunate people to show compassion as against people‘s inability to mask their feelings completely (C) The ability of some people to dive to great depths as against most people‘s inability to swim long distances (D) The psychological profile of those people who are able to delay gratification as against people‘s inability to control their lives completely (E) The greater lung capacity of mountain peoples that helps them live in oxygen-poor air as against people‘s inability to fly without special apparatus 2. It can be inferred that in his discussion of maladaptive frailties the author assumes that (A) evolution does not favor the emergence of adaptive characteristics over the emergence of maladaptive ones (B) any structure or behavior not positively adaptive is regarded as transitory in evolutionary theory (C) maladaptive characteristics, once fixed, make the emergence of other maladaptive characteristics more likely (D) the designation of a characteristic as being maladaptive must always remain highly tentative (E) changes in the total human environment can outpace evolutionary change 29 The molecules of carbon dioxide in the Earth‘s 3. According to the passage, the greatest part of atmosphere affect the heat balance of the Earth by the solar energy that reaches the Earth is acting as a one-way screen. Although these molecules (A) concentrated in the infrared spectrum Line allow radiation at visible wavelengths, where most of (B) concentrated at visible wavelengths 5 the energy of sunlight is concentrated, to pass (C) absorbed by carbon dioxide molecules through, they absorb some of the longer-wa...
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This document was uploaded on 09/16/2013.

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