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Unformatted text preview: dan‘s ideas. generally liberal magazine, warned its readers against ―certain political leanings‖ of the author. (120 words) 118 Exercise 21 Nevelson says, ―I have always wanted to show the 1. Which of the following is one way in which Nevelson‘s art illustrates her theory as it is expressed in world that art is everywhere, except that it has to pass through a creative mind.‖ Using mostly discarded wooden the first sentence? (A) She sculpts in wood rather than in metal or objects like packing crates, broken pieces of furniture, and stone. abandoned architectural ornaments, all of which she has (B) She paints her sculptures and frames them in hoarded for years, she assembles architectural constructions boxes. of great beauty and power. Creating very freely with no (C) She makes no preliminary sketches but rather sketches, she glues and nails objects together, paints them allows the sculpture to develop as she works. black, or more rarely white or gold, and places them in (D) She puts together pieces of ordinary objects boxes. These assemblages, walls, even entire environments create a mysterious, almost awe-inspiring atmosphere. once used for different purposes to make her Although she has denied any symbolic or religious intent in sculptures. (E) She does not deliberately attempt to convey her works, their three-dimensional grandeur and even their titles, such as Sky Cathedral and Night Cathedral, suggest symbolic or religious meanings through her such connotations. sculpture. (124 words) 119 Until recently astronomers have been puzzled by the evolution? Astronomers suggest that stars like fate of red giant and supergiant stars. When the core of a IRC+10216 are actually ―protoplanetary nebulas‖ –old giant star whose mass surpasses 1.4 times the present giant stars whose dense cores have almost but not quite mass of our Sun (M⊙) exhausts its nuclear fuel, it is rid themselves of the fluffy envelopes of gas around them. unable to support its own weight and collapses into a tiny Once the star has lost the entire envelope, its exposed neutron star. The gravitational energy released during this core becomes the central star of the planetary nebula and implosion of the core blows off the remainder of the star heats and ionizes the last vestiges of the envelope as it in a gigantic explosion, or a supernova. flows away into space. This configuration is a Since around 50 percent of all stars are believed to full-fledged planetary nebula, long familiar to optical begin their lives with masses greater than 1.4M⊙, we astronomers. might expect that one out of every two stars would die as a supernova. But in fact, only one star in thirty dies such a violent death. The rest expire much more peacefully as planetary nebulas. Apparently most massive stars manage to lose sufficient material that their masses drop below the critical value of 1.4 M⊙ before they exhaust their 2. The primary purpose of the passage is to nuclear fuel. E vidence supporting this vie...
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This document was uploaded on 09/16/2013.

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