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Nutrition Exam 1 Study Guide

Nutrition Exam 1 Study Guide - Nutrition Exam 1 Study Guide...

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Nutrition Exam 1 Study Guide Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) – the average daily amount of nutrient that will maintain a specific biochemical or physiological function in half the healthy people of a given age or gender group Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA) – the average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people; a goal for dietary intake by individuals. Adequate Intakes (AI) – the average daily amount of a nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain a specified criterion; a value used as a guide for nutrient intake when an RDA cannot be determined. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels – the maximum daily amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people and beyond which there is an increased risk of adverse health effects Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) – a set of nutrient intake values for healthy people in the US and Canada. These values are used for planning and assessing diets and include: o Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) o Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) o Adequate Intakes (AI) o Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL) Nutrient density – a measure of the nutrients a food provides relative to the energy it provides. o The more nutrients and the fewer kcalories, the higher the nutrient density. Fiber – (dietary) in plant foods, the nonstarch polysaccharides that are not digested by human digestive enzymes, although some are digested by GI tract bacteria o Include cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, gums, and mucilages and the nonpolysaccharides lignins, cutins, and tannins Villi – fingerlike projections from the folds of the small intestine; singular villus Microvilli – tiny, hairlike projections on each cell of every villus that can trap nutrient particles and transport them into the cells; singular microvillus. Bile – an emulsifier that prepares fats and oils for digestion; an exocrine secretion made by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine when needed. Gallbladder – the organ that stores and concentrates bile o When it receives signal that fat is present in the duodenum, the gallbladder contracts and squirts bile through the bile duct into the duodenum Mucus – a slippery substance secreted by cells of the GI lining (and other body linings) that protects the cells from exposure to digestive juices (and other destructive agents). o The lining of the GI tract with its coat of mucus is a mucous membrane (adjective = mucous) Pepsin – a gastric enzyme that hydrolyzes protein. o Pepsin is secreted in an inactive form, pepsinogen, which is activated by hydrochloric acid in the stomach Hydrochloric acid – an acid composed of hydrogen and chloride atoms (HCl) that is normally produced by the gastric glands
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Mastication – the process of chewing Epiglottis – cartilage in the throat that guards the entrance to the trachea and prevents fluid or food from entering it when a person swallows
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