Chapter 22- The Revolution In Energy and Industry - Chapter...

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Chapter 22:The Revolution In Energy and Industry1)The Industrial Revolution in Great Britaina)Eighteenth-Century Originsi)IR grew out of a long process of development(1)Expanding Atlantic economy with mercantilist policies provided growing markets(2)Canal-building boom, proximity to navigable waterways, no tariffs on shipping made shipping products domestically profitable(3)English farmers high productivity, continually used new methods- bountiful crops + low food prices, ppl could spend money on other goods(4) Effective central bank, stable and predictable govt, few economic controls and free market, large class of agricultural laborers formed potential labor forceii)Industrial Revolution describes burst of inventions and technical changed in many industries, went hand in hand with industrial growthb)The First Factoriesi)Pressure to produce more good led to creation of first factories in the cotton textile industry- tech innovations led to new system of production(1)Putting-out system limitations began to outweigh advantaged w/ new demand, shortage
of thread forced focus on improvement(2)James Hargreaves invented spinning jenny, Richard Arkwright invented water frame (required large factory with many workers)- new ways to manufacture cottonii)Cotton goods, body linen became cheaper, bought by all classesiii)Ppl in cottage industry freed from search for yarn from part-time spinners, thread could be spun on cottage jenny or obtained from factory(1)Weavers were very well paid, many agricultural laborers became hand-loom weaversiv)Working conditions in early factories were worse than cottage weavers and spinners(1)Young, abandoned children forced to “apprentice” in factories- poor pay, appalling hours, physical punishment, locked up nightly in dormitoriesv)First modern factories in textile industry during 1770s and 1780s grew out of putting-out system of cottage production, marked beginning of Industrial Rev.c)The Problem of Energyi)If water from rivers and streams had remained primary source of power to factories, growth of cotton industry may have been stunted(1)Human beings and animals continued to perform most work, man behind the plow or woman spinning could only employ horsepower and human muscle in their labor. Could not produce very much
(2)By 18thcentury shortage of energy severe, wood in short supply, processed wood (charcoal) used by iron industry in huge demand—industry stagnatedd)The Steam Engine Breakthroughi)Britain looked toward large coal reserves as alternative to vanishing wood. Had been used for heat, but not to produce mechanical energy ii)As more coal was produced and mines dug deeper, mines filling with water became an issue- pumping necessary, animals moving mechanical pumpsiii)Thomas Savery in 1698 and Thomas Newcomen in 1705 created steam engines, burned coal to produce steam which then operated a pump

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