100%(1)1 out of 1 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 1 - 4 out of 18 pages.
Chapter 18:Toward A New WorldView1)The Scientific Revolutiona)Modern science- precise knowledge of the physicalworld based on the union of experimentalobservations with sophisticated mathematicsb)Whereas science had been secondary andsubordinate in medieval intellectual life, it becameindependent and even primary for many educated pplin 18thcenturyc)“Real origin both of the modern world and mentality”-distinctive traits of Western societyd)Scientific Thought in 1500i)In the early 1500s Eur. ideas about the universewere based primarily of the ideas of Aristotle,Greek philosopher of the 4thcentury BCii)Recovered thru Middle Ages and brought into harmony withChristian doctrines(1)Motionless earth was fixed at center ofuniverse, around it moved 10 separatetransparent crystal spheres, beyond 10thspherewas heaven and God, angels kept the spheresmoving in perfect circles, consisted of 5th“essence”, distinction between he world ofcelestial spheres and that of Ear.(2)Sublunar world made up of 4 imperfect elements- light-fireand light, heavy- earth and water. Objects moved at constantspeed, would stop when force removed
(3)Lasted for 2,000 years b/c understandable andcommonsense for what they saw, Aristotle’sscience fit neatly with Christian doctrines-established humans at center of universe, homefor God and soulsiii)Science was primarily a branch of theology, andit reinforced religious thoughte)The Copernican Hypothesisi)Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1542)- as young manstudied church law and astronomy, saw howastronomers depended on the work of Ptolemy, thelast great ancient astronomer, from the 2ndcenturyAD- allowed astrologers to track planets withgreater precision(1)Felt Ptolemy’s rules were cumbersome,inaccurate, detracted from the majesty of aperfect creator(2)Preferred old Greek idea discussed inRenaissance Italy- the sun, rather than earth,was the center of the universe(3)Worked from 1506-1530 on theory in churchposition, theorized stars and planets, includingearth, revolved around a fixed sun(4)Did not publishon the Revolutions of theHeavenly Spheresuntil 1453, the year of hisdeath for fear of ridicule by other astronomersii)Copernican hypothesis put the stars at rest,apparent movement a result of earth’s rotation-destroyed main reason for spheres capable ofmoving starsiii)Suggested universe of staggering size, and bycharacterizing the earth as just another planet
destroyed Aristotelian idea that the earthly worldwas quite different from the heavenly oneiv)Drew sharp attacks from religious leaders,especially Protestants. Martin Luther said “HolyScripture tells Joshua bid the sun stand still andnot the earth”, Calvin opposed, not until 1616 didCatholic church declare theory false(1)Slow reaction reflected slow progress of theoryfor many years, new star in 1572 and comet in1577 contradicted crystal spheresv)Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)- born into Danish noblefamily, impressed by eclipse at young age,established himself as Europe’s leadingastronomer