Asaresult ofchargeseparationacrossthemembraneacidic

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Unformatted text preview: oxidative phosphorylation (OP) 5. ATP Use 2 ATP in preliminary & make 4 in two EM SLP Net ATP = 2 by SLP 2 net STP by SLP in EM 6 ATP by OP from NADH in EM; Net ATP in EM = 8 ATP But produce 30 ATP more From Pyruvate ⇒ CO2 in TCA (KrebbÕs cycl) e 6. TCA cycle (KrebbÕs cycl) e Not operating Operates & many oxidative rxns produce NADH or FADH which via e- transfer produce a proton motive force to synthesize much ATP 7. Energy production Low: 2 net ATP High: 38 ATP (prokaryotes) 8. Speed Fast because very little energy per glucose Slower because much energy produced per glucose. Pasteur effect: O2 inhibition of glycloysis: actually ATP inhibition of kinase in EM 9. End Products Fermentative CO2 & H2O & ATP (38) Gluconeogenesis • Not all C sources are glucose – C2, C3, C4, C5, compounds Citric Acid Cycle oxaloacetate – Oxaloacetate PEP Glucose-6-P • reversal glycolysis II. Biosynthesis • 12 Key intermediates, ATP, NADPH2 [i.e. the products of fueling] building blocks • Examples: – Citric acid cycle intermediates • Alpha-ketoglutarate glutamate family • Oxaloacetate aspartate family • Pyruvate alanine Biosynthesis Continued – Glycolysis: • Glucose-6-P Ribulose-5-P Ribose-5P Ribonucleotides Deoxyribonucleotides • + NADPH + NADP – Pentose Cycle: • Erythose-4-P + PEP (glycolysis) • Chorismate Aromatic amino acids • [PAla, Tyr, Tryptophane] Polymerization • Amino acid + Amino acid Dipeptide • Reaction: not thermodynamically favorable • Violates 2nd law thermodynamics which states that chemical reactions go spontaneously in direction of disorder. • Instead: subunits “activated” before they are polymerized into macromolecules: – Ex. Amino acid + ATP Aminoacyl-AMP + PPi – Aminoacyl-AMP + t-RNA Aminoacyl-tRNA + AMP – Aminoacyl-tRNAs (directed by mRNA) polypeptides Polymerization Continued • Glucose activated by reacting with UTP to form UDP-Glucose (also ADP-Glucose). • UDP-Glucose(s) polysaccharide • Nucleotides activated ie they are first converted to tri-P forms. ATP, GTP, e.t.c. • Thus in all cases of Polymerization reactions it is activated subunits that are the reactants to form macromolecules. Regulation of Biosynthetic Pathways • Enzyme Synthesis (Amount): in prokaryotes at gene level • Enzyme Activity (Activity of Preexisting Enzyme) • Discuss these topics later in course: overview of molecular biology and microbial genetics...
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This document was uploaded on 09/17/2013.

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