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Just as painted designs on Greek pots may seem today to be purely decorative, whereas in fact they were carefully and precisely worked out so that at the time, their meaning was clear, so it is with Chinese pots. To twentiethcentury eyes, Chinese pottery may appear merely decorative, yet to the Chinese the f orm of each object and its adornment had meaning and significance. The dragon represented the emperor, and the phoenix, the empress; the pomegranate indicated fertility, and a pair of fish, happiness; mandarin ducks stood for wedded bliss; the pine tree, peach, and crane are emblems of long life; and fish leaping from waves indicated success in the civil service examinations. Only when European decorative themes were introduced did these meanings become obscured or even lost.
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From early times pots were used in both religious and secular contexts. The imperial court commissioned work and in the Yuan dynasty (A.D. 12791368) an imperial ceramic factory was established at Jingdezhen. Pots played an important part in some religious ceremonies. Long and often lyrical descriptions of the different types of ware exist that assist in classifying pots, although these sometimes confuse an already large and complicated picture. Paragraph 2 在The function and status of ceramics in China varied from dynasty to dynasty, so they may be utilitarian, burial, tradecollectors', or even ritual objects, according to their quality and the era in which they were made. The ceramics fall into three broad types—earthenware, stoneware, and porcelain—for vessels, architectural items such as roof tiles, and modeled objects and figures. In addition, there was an important group of sculptures made for religious use, the majority of which were produced in earthenware.
1 .The word status in the passage is closest in meaning to ○ origin
2. According to paragraph 2, which of the following is true of Chinese ceramics? ○ The function of ceramics remained the same from dynasty to dynasty.
○ The use of ceramics as trade objects is better documented than the use of ceramics as ritual objects.
○ There was little variation in quality for any type of ceramics over time.
○ Some religious sculptures were made using the earthenware type of ceramics.
Paragraph 3 在 The earliest ceramics were fired to earthenware temperatures, but as early as the fifteenth century B.C., hightemperature stonewares were being made with glazed surfaces. During the Six Dynasties period (AD 265589), kilns in north China were producing highfired ceramics of good quality. Whitewares produced in Hebei and Henan provinces from the seventh to the tenth centuries evolved into the highly prized porcelains of the Song dynasty (AD. 9601279), long regarded as one of the high points in the history of China's ceramic industry. The tr...
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This note was uploaded on 09/17/2013 for the course LANGUAGE 13DL208 taught by Professor Wang during the Fall '13 term at East China Normal University.
- Fall '13