Unformatted text preview: tact allows us to size up others. Seeing and talking with one another in close physical proximity makes possible a subtle exchange of ideas and feelings. And third, the probability that we will develop primary group bonds increases as we have frequent and continuous contact. Our ties with people often deepen as we interact with them across time and gradually evolve interlocking habits and interests.
7. The phrase size up in the passage is closest in meaning to
Paragraph 5 在 Primary groups are fundamental to us and to society. First, primary groups are critical to the socialization process. Within them, infants and children are introduced to the ways of their society. Such groups are the breeding grounds in which we acquire the norms and values that equip us for social life. Sociologists iew v primary groups as bridges between individuals and the larger society because they transmit, ediate, and m interpret a society's cultural patterns and provide the sense of oneness so critical for social solidarity. 8. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the 370
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passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
○ Sociologists think that cultural patterns establish connections between the individual and the larger society.
○ Sociologists believe that individuals with a sense of oneness bridge the gap between society and primary groups.
○ Sociologists think primary groups contribute to social solidarity because they help maintain a society's cultural patterns.
○ Sociologists believe that the cultural patterns that provide social solidarity arise as bridges from primary groups.
9. This passage is developed primarily by
○drawing comparisons between theory and practice
○presenting two opposing theories
○defining important concepts and providing examples of them
○discussing causes and their effects
Paragraph 7 在 Third, primary groups are fundamental because they serve as powerful instruments for social control. Their members command and dispense many of the rewards that are so vital to us and that make our lives seem worthwhile. Should the use of rewards fail, members can frequently win by rejecting or threatening to ostracize those who deviate from the primary group's norms. For instance, some social groups employ shunning (a person can remain in the community, but others are forbidden to interact with the person) as a device to bring into line individuals whose behavior goes beyond that allowed by the particular group. Even more important, primary groups define social reality for us by structuring our experiences. By providing us with definitions of situations, they elicit from us behavior that conforms to groupdevised meanings. Primary groups, then, serve both as carriers of social norms and asenforcers of them.
10. The w...
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This note was uploaded on 09/17/2013 for the course LANGUAGE 13DL208 taught by Professor Wang during the Fall '13 term at East China Normal University.
- Fall '13