文勇的新托福黄金&ccedil

æ–å‹çš„新托福黄金ç

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Unformatted text preview: ion growth along rivers and lakes was dramatically decreasing the availability of fish. ○A region that had once supported many people was becoming a desert where few could survive Paragraph 2: Livestock also came from outside Africa. Cattle were introduced from Asia, as probably were domestic sheep and goats. Horses were apparently introduced by the Hyksos invaders of Egypt (1780­1560 B.C.) and then spread across the Sudan to West Africa. Rock paintings in the Sahara indicate that horses and chariots were used to traverse the desert and that by 300­200 B.C., there were trade routes across the Sahara. Horses were adopted by peoples of the West African savannah, and later their powerful cavalry forces allowed them to carve out large empires. Finally, the camel was introduced around the first century A.D. This was an important innovation, because the camel’s abilities to thrive in harsh desert conditions and to carry large loads cheaply made it an effective and efficient means of transportation. The camel transformed the desert from a barrier into a still difficult, but more accessible, route of trade and communication. 4. According to paragraph 2,camels were important because they ○were the first domesticated animal to be introduced to Africa ○allowed the people of the West African savannahs to carve out large empires ○helped African peoples defend themselves against Egyptian invaders ○made it cheaper and easier to cross the Sahara 5. According to paragraph 2, which of the following were subjects of rock paintings in the Sahara? ○Horses and chariots ○Sheep and goats ○Hyksos invaders from Egypt ○Camels and cattle Paragraph 3: Iron came from West Asia, although its routes of diffusion were somewhat different than those of agriculture. Most of Africa presents a curious case in which societies moved directly from a technology of stone to iron without passing through the intermediate stage of copper or bronze metallurgy, although some early copper­ working sites have been found in West Africa. Knowledge of iron making penetrated into the forest and savannahs of West Africa at roughly the same time that iron making was reaching Europe. Evidence of iron making has been found in Nigeria, Ghana, and Mali. 6. What function does paragraph 3 serve in the organization of the passage as a whole ○It contrasts the development of iron technology in West Asia and West Africa. ○It discusses a non­agricultural contribution to Africa from Asia. 237 [email protected] 在在在在在在 www.liuwenyong.com 在在在在在在在在在在在在在在在,在在在在在在在在在在 ○It introduces evidence that a knowledge of copper working reached Africa and Europe at the same time. ○It compares the rates at which iron technology developed in different parts of Africa. Paragraph 4: This technological shift cause profound changes in the complexity of African societies. Iron represented power. In West Africa the blacksmith who made tools and functions. Iron hoes, which made the land...
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This note was uploaded on 09/17/2013 for the course LANGUAGE 13DL208 taught by Professor Wang during the Fall '13 term at East China Normal University.

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