This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: ○People who normally do not believe that aggression is necessary and justified may act aggressively during wartime. ○People who believe that aggression is necessary and justified do not necessarily act aggressively during wartime.
9. According to the cognitive approach described in paragraphs 7 and 8, all of the following may influence the decision whether to act aggressively EXCEPT a person's ○Moral values
○Previous experiences with aggression
○Instinct to avoid aggression
○Beliefs about other people's intentions
10. The word distort in the passage is closest in meaning to ○Mistrust
Paragraph 5: The Psychodynamic Approach. Theorists adopting the psychodynamic approach hold that inner conflicts are crucial for understanding human behavior, including aggression. Sigmund Freud, for example, believed that aggressive impulses are inevitable reactions to the frustrations of daily life. Children normally desire to vent aggressive impulses on other people, including their parents, because even the most attentive parents cannot gratify all of their demands immediately. ■Yet children, also fearing their parents' punishment and the loss of parental love, come to repress most aggressive impulses. ■The Freudian perspective, in a sense: sees us as "steam engines." ■By holding in rather than venting "steam," we set the stage for future explosions. ■Pentup aggressive impulses demand outlets. They may be expressed toward parents in indirect ways such as destroying furniture, or they may be expressed toward strangers later in life.
11. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the passage.
According to Freud, however, impulses that have been repressed continue to exist and demand expression.
Where would the sentence best fit?
12. Directions: Complete the table below by matching five of the six answer choices with the approach to aggression that they exemplify. This question is worth 3 points.
Approach to Understanding Aggression Associated Claims
Mail@liuwenyong.com 在在在在在在 www.liuwenyong.com 在在在在在在在在在在在在在在在,在在在在在在在在在在
Biological approach ●
Psychodynamic approach ●
● Cognitive approach ●
Answer choices ○Aggressive impulses toward people are sometimes expressed in indirect ways.
○Aggressiveness is often useful for individuals in the struggle for survival.
○Aggressive behavior may involve a misunderstanding of other people's intentions.
○The need to express aggressive impulses declines with age.
○Acting aggressively is the result of a choice influenced by a person's values and beliefs.
○Repressing aggressive impulses can result in aggressive behavior. 42
Mail@liuwenyong.com 在在在在在在 www.liuwenyong.com 在在在在在在在在在在在在在在在,在在在在在在在在在在 在在在在:
1. ○3 This is a Factual Information question asking for specific information that can be found in paragraph 2. The correct answer is choice 3. The question as...
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 09/17/2013 for the course LANGUAGE 13DL208 taught by Professor Wang during the Fall '13 term at East China Normal University.
- Fall '13