文勇的新托福黄金&ccedil

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Unformatted text preview: 在在在在在 www.liuwenyong.com 在在在在在在在在在在在在在在在,在在在在在在在在在在 在在在在在 1. ○3 This is an Inference question asking for an inference that can be supported by the passage. The correct answer is choice 3, "They were produced with more concern for quality than for speed of production." A number of statements throughout the passage support choice 3. Paragraph 1 states that "Before 1815 manufacturing in the United States had been done in homes or shops by skilled artisans . . . After 18 15 this older form of manufacturing began to give way to factories with machinery tended by unskilled or semiskilled laborers." Paragraph 2 states that "Before the rise of the factory . . . skilled artisans did not work by the clock, at a steady pace, but rather in bursts of intense labor alternating with more leisurely time." Paragraph 3 states, "The factory changed that. Goods produced by factories were not as finished or elegant as those done by hand, and pride in craftsmanship gave way to the pressure to increase rates of productivity." Taken together, these three statements, about production rates, the rise of factories after 18 15, and the decline of craftsmanship after 18 15, support the inference that before 18 15, the emphasis had been on quality rather than on speed of production. Answer choices 1, 2, and 4 are all contradicted by the passage. 2. ○2 This is a Sentence Simplification question. As with all of these items, a single sentence in the passage is highlighted: Apprentices were considered part of the family, and masters were responsible not only for teaching their apprentices a trade but also for providing them some education and for supervising their moral behavior. The correct answer is choice 2. Choice 2 contains all of the essential information in the highlighted sentence. The highlighted sentence explains why (part of the family) and how (education, moral behavior) a master's responsibility went beyond teaching a trade. The essential information is the fact that the master's responsibility went beyond teaching a trade. Therefore, choice 2 contains all that is essential without changing the meaning of the highlighted sentence. Choice 1 changes the meaning of the highlighted sentence b~ stating that masters often treated apprentices irresponsibly. Choice 3 contradicts the essential meaning of the highlighted sentence. The fact that "Apprentices were considered part of the family . . . " suggests that they were not actual family members. Choice 4, like choice 3, changes the meaning of the highlighted sentence by discussing family members as apprentices. 3. ○4 This is a Vocabulary question. The word being tested is disrupted. It is highlighted in the passage. The correct answer is choice 4, "upset." The word "upset" here is used in the context of "hurting productivity." When something is hurt or damaged, it is "upset." 4....
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