文勇的新托福黄金&ccedil

acrossthepacificfromsouthamericatoprovehistheorythatp

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Unformatted text preview: member experiences that occurred in their first year, and eleven month olds remember some events a year later. Nor does the hypothesis that infantile amnesia reflects repression­ or holding back­ of sexually charged episodes explain the phenomenon 在While such repression may occur在people cannot remember ordinary events from the infant and toddler periods either 在 Three other explanations seem more promising. One involves physiological changes relevant to memory. Maturation of the frontal lobes of the brain continues throughout early childhood, and this part of the brain may be critical for remembering particular episodes in ways that can be retrieved later. Demonstrations of infants’ and toddlers' long­term memory have involved their repeating motor activities that they had seen or done earlier 在such as reaching in the dark for objects, putting a bottle in a doll’s mouth, or pulling apart two pieces of a toy. The brain’s level of physiological maturation may support these types of memories在but not ones requiring explicit verbal descriptions. A second explanation involves the influence of the social world on children’s language use 在 Hearing and telling stories about events may help children store information in ways that will endure into later childhood and adulthood 在 Through hearing stories with a clear beginning 在 middle, and ending children may learn to extract the gist of events in ways that they will be able to describe many years later. Consistent with this view parents and children increasingly engage in discussions of past events when children are about three years old. However, hearing such stories is not sufficient for younger children to form enduring memories. Telling such stories to two year olds does not seem to produce long­lasting verbalizable memories. A third likely explanation for infantile amnesia involves incompatibilities between the ways in which infants encode information and the ways in which older children and adults retrieve it. Whether people can remember an event depends critically on the fit between the way in which they earlier encoded the information and the way in which they later attempt to retrieve it. The better able the person is to reconstruct the perspective from which the material was encoded, the more likely that recall will be successful. This view is supported by a variety of factors that can create mismatches between very young children's encoding and older children's and adults' retrieval efforts. The world looks very different to a person whose head is only two or three feet above the ground than to one whose head is five or six feet above it, 0lder children and adults often try to retrieve the names of things they saw, but infants would not have encoded the information verbally 在 General knowledge of categories of events such as a birthday party or a visit to the doctor's office helps older individuals encode their experiences, but again, infants and toddlers are unlikely...
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