文勇的新托福黄金&ccedil

æ–å‹çš„新托福黄金ç

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Unformatted text preview: ity of Machu Picchu high in the eastern Andes Mountains of Peru. The doorways and windows are made possible by placing over the open spaces thick stone beams that support the weight from above. A structural invention had to be made before the physical limitations of stone could be overcome and new architectural forms could be created. That invention was the arch, a curved structure originally made of separate stone or brick segments. The arch was used by the early cultures of the Mediterranean area chiefly for underground drains, but it was the Romans who first developed and used the arch extensively in aboveground structures. Roman builders perfected the semicircular arch made of separate blocks of stone. As a method of spanning space, the arch can support greater weight than a horizontal beam. It works in compression to divert the weight above it out to the sides, where the weight is borne by the vertical elements on either side of the arch. The arch is among the many important structural breakthroughs that have characterized architecture throughout the centuries. 9. The word “arduous” in the passage is closest in meaning to ○Difficult ○Necessary ○Skilled ○Shared 10. Why does the author include a description of how the “ doorways and windows” of Machu Picchu were constructed? ○To indicate that the combined skeletons and skins of the stone buildings of Machu Picchu were similar to igloos and adobe structures ○To indicate the different kinds of stones that had to be cut to build Machu Picchu ○To provide an illustration of the kind of construction that was required before arches were invented ○To explain how ancient builders reduced the amount of time necessary to construct buildings from stone. 11在According to paragraph6, which of the following statements is true of the arch? ○The Romans were the first people to use the stone arch. ○The invention of the arch allowed new architectural forms to be developed. ○The arch worked by distributing the structural of a building toward the center of the arch. ○The Romans followed earlier practices in their use of arches. Paragraph 5在█ Modern architectural forms generally have three separate components comparable to elements of the human body; a supporting skeleton or frame, an outer skin enclosing the interior spaces, equipment, similar to the body’s vital organs and systems. █ The equipment includes plumbing, electrical wiring, hot water, and air­ conditioning. █Of course in early architecture—such as igloos and adobe structures—there was no such equipment, 115 [email protected] 在在在在在在 www.liuwenyong.com 在在在在在在在在在在在在在在在,在在在在在在在在在在 and the skeleton and skin were often one. █ 12在Look at the four squares [█] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. However, some modern architectural designs, such as those using folded plates of concreter or air­ inflated structures, are again un...
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This note was uploaded on 09/17/2013 for the course LANGUAGE 13DL208 taught by Professor Wang during the Fall '13 term at East China Normal University.

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