Unformatted text preview: efore 1815 manufacturing in the United States had been done in homes or shops by skilled artisans. As master craft workers, they imparted the knowledge of their trades to apprentices and journeymen. In addition, women often worked in their homes parttime, making finished articles from raw material supplied by merchant capitalists. After 1815 this older form of manufacturing began to give way to factories with machinery tended by unskilled or semiskilled laborers. Cheap transportation networks, the rise of cities, and the availability of capital and credit all stimulated the shift to factory production.
1. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about articles manufactured before 1815? ○They were primarily produced by women.
○They were generally produced in shops rather than in homes.
○They were produced with more concern for quality than for speed of production.
○They were produced mostly in large cities with extensive transportation networks.
Paragraph 2: The creation of a labor force that was accustomed to working in factories did not occur easily. Before the rise of the factory, artisans had worked within the home. Apprentices were considered part of the family, and masters were responsible not only for teaching their apprentices a trade but also for providing them some education and for supervising their moral behavior. Journeymen knew that if they perfected their skill, they could become respected master artisans with their own shops. Also, skilled artisans did not work by the clock, at a steady pace, but rather in bursts of intense labor alternating with more leisurely time.
2. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage?
Incorrect answer choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. ○Masters demanded moral behavior from apprentices but often treated them irresponsibly.
○The responsibilities of the master to the apprentice went beyond the teaching of a trade.
○Masters preferred to maintain the trade within the family by supervising and educating the younger family members. ○Masters who trained members of their own family as apprentices demanded excellence from them.
Paragraph 3: The factory changed that. Goods produced by factories were not as finished or elegant as those done by hand, and pride in craftsmanship gave way to the pressure to increase rates of productivity. The new methods of doing business involved a new and stricter sense of time. Factory life necessitated a more regimented schedule, where work began at the sound of a bell and workers kept machines going at a constant pace. At the same time, workers were required to discard old habits, for industrialism demanded a worker who was alert, dependable, and selfdisciplined. Absenteeism and lateness hurt productivity and, since work was specialized, disrupted the regular factory routine. Industrialization not only produced a fundamental change in the way w...
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This note was uploaded on 09/17/2013 for the course LANGUAGE 13DL208 taught by Professor Wang during the Fall '13 term at East China Normal University.
- Fall '13