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Unformatted text preview: a given pool can be brought to the surface. The rest is far too difficult to extract and has to remain underground.
10在According to paragraph 5, the decision to drill for oil depends on all of the following factors EXCEPT ○permission to access the area where oil has been found
○the availability of sufficient quantities of oil in a pool
○the location of the market in relation to the drilling site
○the political situation in the region where drilling would occur
Paragraph 6 在 Moreover, getting petroleum out of the ground and from under the sea and to the consumer can create environmental problems anywhere along the line. Pipelines carrying oil can be broken by faults or landslides, causing serious oil spills. Spillage from huge oilcarrying cargo ships, called tankers, involved in collisions or accidental groundings (such as the one off Alaska in 1989) can create oil slicks at sea. Offshore platforms may also lose oil, creating oil slicks that drift ashore and foul the beaches, harming the environment. Sometimes, the ground at an oil field may subside as oil is removed. The Wilmington field near Long Beach, California, has subsided nine meters in 50 years; protective barriers have had to be built to prevent seawater from flooding the area. Finally, the refining and burning of petroleum and its products can cause air pollution. Advancing technology and strict laws, however, are helping control some of these adverse environmental effects.
11在The word “foul” in the passage is closest in meaning to ○Reach ○Flood ○Pollute ○Alter 12在In paragraph 6, the author’s primary purpose is to ○Provide examples of how oil exploration can endanger the environment
○Describe accidents that have occurred when oil activities were in progress
○Give an analysis of the effects of oil spills on the environment
○Explain how technology and legislation help reduce oil spills
Paragraph 2 在 Continued sedimentation—the process of deposits' settling on the sea bottom—buries the organic matter and subjects it to higher temperatures and pressures, which convert the organic matter to oil and gas. █As muddy sediments are pressed together, the gas and small droplets of oil may be squeezed out of the mud and may move into sandy layers nearby. █Over long periods of time (millions of years), accumulations of gas and oil can collect in the sandy layers. █Both oil and gas are less dense than water, so they generally tend to rise upward 170
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through watersaturated rock and sediment. █
13.Look at the four squares [█] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. Unless something acts to halt this migration, these natural resources will eventually reach the surface. Where would the sentence best fit? 14 在 Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas...
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- Fall '13