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Unformatted text preview: pment of plant life on Hawaii? ○Ferns were able to grow because lichens created suitable soil. ○The decomposition of ferns produced minerals that were used by lichens. ○Lichens and ferns competed to grow in the same rocky environments. ○Lichens and ferns were typically found together in volcanic areas.
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Paragraph 4 Many millions of years after ferns evolved (but long before the Hawaiian Island were born from the sea), another kind of flora evolved on Earth: the seedbearing plants. This was a wonderful biological invention. The seed has an outer coating that surrounds the genetic material of the new plant, and inside this covering is a concentrated supply of nutrients. Thus, the speed's chances of survival are greatly enhanced over those of the naked spore. One type of seedbearing plant, the angiosperm, includes all forms of blooming vegetation. In the angiosperm the seeds are wrapped in an additional layer of covering. Some of these coats are hardlike the shell of a nutfor extra protection. Some are soft and tempting, like a peach or a cherry. In some angiosperm the seeds are equipped with gossamer wings, like the dandelion and milkweed seeds. These new characteristics offered better ways for the seeds to move to new habitats. They could travel through the air, float in water, and lie dormant for many months. 7. The word This in the passage refers to ○the spread of ferns and mosses in Hawaii ○the creation of the Hawaiian Islands ○the evolution of ferns ○the development of plants that produce seeds 8. According to paragraph 4, why do seeds have a greater chance of survival than spores do? To receive credit, you must select TWO answer choices. ○Seeds need less water to grow into a mature plant than spores do. ○Seeds do not need to rely on outside sources of nutrients. ○Seeds are better protected from environmental dangers than spores are. ○Seeds are heavier than spores and are therefore more likely to take root and grow.
9. Why does the author mention a nut, a peach, and a cherry? ○To indicate that some seeds are less likely to survive than others ○To point out that many angiosperms can be eaten ○To provide examples of blooming plants ○To illustrate the variety of coverings among angiosperm seeds 10. The word dormant in the passage is closest in meaning to ○hidden ○inactive ○underground ○preserved
Paragraph 5: Plants with large, buoyant seedslike coconutsdrift on ocean currents and are washed up on the shores. Remarkably resistant to the vicissitudes of ocean travel, they can survive prolonged immersion in saltwater. When they come to rest on warm beaches and the conditions are favorable, the seed coats softer. Nourished by their imported supply of nutrients, the young plants push out their roots and establish their place in the sun. 11. According to paragraph 5, a major reason that coconuts can establish themselves in distant locations is that their seeds can ○survive long exposure to heat on island beaches ○float and survive for long periods in ocean w...
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This note was uploaded on 09/17/2013 for the course LANGUAGE 13DL208 taught by Professor Wang during the Fall '13 term at East China Normal University.
- Fall '13