文勇的新托福黄金&ccedil

investmentaswellasforsupportingthelargerpopulationsth

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Unformatted text preview: against competitors. More often, we simply cooperate with others to reach some end without endowing the relationship with any larger significance. 3. The word endowing in the passage is closest in meaning to ○ leaving ○ exposing ○ providing ○ understanding 4. Which of the following can be inferred about instrumental ties from the author's mention of working with competitors in paragraph 2? ○ Instrumental ties can develop even in situations in which people would normally not cooperate. ○ Instrumental ties require as much emotional investment as expressive ties. ○ Instrumental ties involve security, love, and acceptance. ○ Instrumental ties should be expected to be significant. 369 Mail@liuwenyong.com 在在在在在在 www.liuwenyong.com 在在在在在在在在在在在在在在在,在在在在在在在在在在 Paragraph 3 在 Sociologists have built on the distinction between expressive and instrumental ties to distinguish between two types of groups: primary and secondary. A primary group involves two or more people who enjoy a direct, intimate, cohesive relationship with one another. Expressive ties predominate in primary groups; we view the people as ends in themselves and valuable in their own right. A secondary group entails two or more people who are involved in an impersonal relationship and have come together for a specific, practical purpose. Instrumental ties predominate in secondary groups; we perceive people as means to ends rather than as ends in their own right. Sometimes primary group relationships evolve out of secondary group relationships. This happens in many work settings. People on the job often develop close relationships with coworkers as they come to share gripes, jokes, gossip, and satisfactions. 5. According to paragraph 3, what do sociologists see as the main difference between primary and secondary groups? ○ Primary groups consist of people working together, while secondary groups exist outside of work settings. ○ In primary groups people are seen as means, while in secondary groups people are seen as ends. ○ Primary groups involve personal relationships, while secondary groups are mainly practical in purpose. ○ Primary groups are generally small, while secondary groups often contain more than two people. 6. Which of the following can be inferred from the author's claim in paragraph 3 that primary group relationships sometimes evolve out of secondary group relationships? ○ Secondary group relationships begin by being primary group relationships. ○ A secondary group relationship that is highly visible quickly becomes a primary group relationship. ○ Sociologists believe that only primary group relationships are important to society. ○ Even in secondary groups, frequent communication serves to bring people into close relationships. Paragraph 4 在 A number of conditions enhance the likelihood that primary groups will arise. First, group size is important. We find it difficult to get to know people personally when they are milling about and dispersed in large groups. In small groups we have a better chance to initiate contact and establish rapport with them. Second, face­to­face con...
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