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Unformatted text preview: tion ceremony. This opinion holds that the pictures and whatever ceremony they accompanied were an ancient method of psychologically motivating hunters. It is conceivable that before going hunting the hunters would draw or study pictures of animals and imagine a successful hunt. Considerable support exists for this opinion because several animals in the pictures are wounded by arrows and spears. This opinion also attempts to solve the overpainting by explaining that an animal’s picture had no further use after the hunt.
7. The word accompanied in the passage is closest in meaning to ○Represented ○Developed into ○Were associated with ○Came after 8. According to paragraph 4, why do some scholars believe that the paintings were related to hunting? ○Because some tools used for painting were also used for hunting ○Because cave inhabitants were known to prefer animal food rather than plant food ○Because some of the animals are shown wounded by weapons ○Because many hunters were also typically painters Paragraph 5 A third opinion takes psychological motivation much further into the realm of tribal ceremonies and mystery: the belief that certain animals assumed mythical significance as ancient ancestors or protectors of a given tribe or clan. Two types of images substantiate this theory: the strange, indecipherable geometric shapes that appear near some animals, and the few drawings of men. Wherever men appear they are crudely drawn and their bodies are elongated and rigid. Some men are in a prone position and some have bird or animal heads. Advocates for this opinion point to reports from people who have experienced a trance state, a highly suggestive state of low consciousness between waking and sleeping. Uniformly, these people experienced weightlessness and the sensation 141
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that their bodies were being stretched lengthwise. Advocates also point to people who believe that the forces of nature are inhabited by spirits, particularly shamans* who believe that an animal’s spirit and energy is transferred to them while in a trance. One Lascaux narrative picture, which shows a man with a birdlike head and a wounded animal, would seem to lend credence to this third opinion, but there is still much that remains unexplained. For example, where is the proof that the man in the picture is a shaman? He could as easily be a hunter wearing a headmask. Many tribal hunters, including some Native Americans, camouflaged themselves by wearing animal heads and hides.
9. According to paragraph 5, why do some scholars refer to a trance state to help understand the cave paintings? ○To explain the state of consciousness the artists were in when they painted their pictures ○To demonstrate the mythical significance of the strange geometric shapes ○To indicate that trance states were often associated with activities that took place inside...
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- Fall '13