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Unformatted text preview: tation of other people's motives. Supporting evidence comes from research showing that aggressive people often distort other people's motives. For example, they assume that other people mean them harm when they do not. Catharsis: In psychodynamic theory, the purging of strong emotions or the relieving of tensions. Paragraph 2: The Biological Approach. Numerous biological structures and chemicals appear to be involved in aggression. One is the hypothalamus, a region of the brain. In response to certain stimuli, many animals show instinctive aggressive reactions. The hypothalamus appears to be involved in this inborn reaction pattern: electrical stimulation of part of the hypothalamus triggers stereotypical aggressive behaviors in many animals. In people, however, whose brains are more complex, other brain structures apparently moderate possible instincts. 1. According to paragraph 2, what evidence indicates that aggression in animals is related to the hypothalamus? ○Some aggressive animal species have a highly developed hypothalamus. ○Artificial stimulation of the hypothalamus results in aggression in animals. ○Animals behaving aggressively show increased activity in the hypothalamus. ○Animals who lack a hypothalamus display few aggressive tendencies. Paragraph 3: An offshoot of the biological approach called sociobiology suggests that aggression is natural and even desirable for people. Sociobiology views much social behavior, including aggressive behavior, as genetically determined. Consider Darwin's theory of evolution. Darwin held that many more individuals are produced than can find food and survive into adulthood. A struggle for survival follows. Those individuals who possess characteristics that provide them with an advantage in the struggle for existence are more likely to survive and contribute their genes to the next generation. In many species, such characteristics include aggressiveness. Because aggressive individuals are more likely to survive and reproduce, whatever genes are linked to aggressive behavior are more likely to be transmitted to subsequent generations. 2. According to Darwin's theory of evolution, members of a species are forced to struggle for survival because ○Not all individuals are skilled in finding food ○Individuals try to defend their young against attackers ○Many more individuals are born than can survive until the age of reproduction ○Individuals with certain genes are more likely to reach adulthood Paragraph 5: The Psychodynamic Approach. Theorists adopting the psychodynamic approach hold that inner conflicts are crucial for understanding human behavior, including aggression. Sigmund Freud, for example, believed that aggressive impulses are inevitable reactions to the frustrations of daily life. Children normally desire to vent aggressive impulses on other people, including their parents, because even the most attentive parents cannot gratify all of their demands immediately. Yet children, also fearing their parents' punishment and the loss of parental love, come to repress most aggressive impulses. The Freudian perspective...
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