文勇的新托福黄金&ccedil

of historical periodization conceals a host

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Unformatted text preview: ain, in part, why so many linguists have argued that the Indo­European languages began their astonishing expansionist career not among farmers in Anatolia (present­day Turkey), but among early pastoralists from Inner Eurasia. Such theories imply that the Indo­European languages evolved not in Neolithic (10,000 to 3,000 B.C.) Anatolia, but among the foraging communities of the cultures in the region of the Don and Dnieper rivers, which took up stock breeding and began to exploit the neighboring steppes. 6. In paragraph 3, why does the author discuss languages spoken in the region spanning from Eastern Europe to the westem borders of Mongolia? ○To emphasize the frequency with which Indo­European languages changed as a result of the mobile nature of pastoralism ○To indicate one method linguists use to determine that inhabitants of the Don and Dnieper river area had taken up stock breeding ○Provide evidence that Indo­European languages have their roots in what is now Turkey ○To provide evidence that pastorahst societies can exercise cultural influence over a large area 7 The word "striking” in the passage is closest in meaning to ○reliable ○noticeable ○convincing ○violent 8 The word "exploit” in the passage is closest in meaning to ○use to advantage ○depart from ○pay attention to ○travel across Paragraph 4: Nomadism also subjects pastoralist communities to strict rules of portability. If you are constantly on the move, you cannot affordto accumulate large material surpluses. Such rules limit variations in accumulated material goods between pastoralist households (though they may also encourage a taste for portable goods of high value such as silks or jewelry). So, by and large, nomadism implies a high degree of self­sufficiency and inhibits the appearance of an extensive division of labor. Inequalities of wealth and rank certainly exist, and have probably existed in most pastoralist societies, but except in periods of military conquest, they are normally too slight to 405 Mail@liuwenyong.com 在在在在在在 www.liuwenyong.com 在在在在在在在在在在在在在在在,在在在在在在在在在在 generate the stable, hereditary hierarchies that are usually implied by the use of the term class. lnequalities of gender have also existed in pastoralist societies, but they seem to have been softened by the absence of steep hierarchies of wealth in most communities, and also by the requirement that women acquire most of the skills of men, including, often, their military skills. 9. According to paragraph 4, the fact that pastoralist communities are subject to “ strict rules of portability” encourages such communities to ○relocate less frequently than they would otherwise ○have households that are more or less equal in wealth ○become self­sufficient in the manufacture of silk and jewelry ○share large material surpluses with neighboring communities 10. According to paragraph 4, all of the following are true of social inequality in pastoralist societies EXCEPT:...
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